The the same oppression, convincing them to take

The Bill of Rights, adopted in 1791, was written
to protect basic American rights, yet the freedoms it presented were kept from
countless African slaves. During the same year, Benjamin Banneker, a free
African American and the son of former slaves, decided to challenge society’s
viewpoint of slavery. In a letter to Thomas Jefferson, Banneker illustrates the
hypocrisy of the Declaration of Independence, describes the oppressive conditions
that slaves had to endure, and offers a solution for equality in order to argue
against the cruel nature of slavery.

employs exemplification, providing a specific case to support his argument, to
illustrate the hypocrisy of the Declaration of Independence. Aiming to take
advantage of America’s historical struggles, Banneker forces his audience to
remember the time when they themselves were victims of oppression. He provides a
sensitive example in which America has been reduced to a “State of Servitude”
by the controlling “tyranny of the British Crown” to appeal to his patriotic
audience who fought so hard to free their country from oppression. Comparing
America’s previous helpless state to the plight of slaves establishes a feeling
of guilt among audience members who have experienced the same oppression, convincing
them to take on an anti-slavery viewpoint.

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candidly describes the grotesque conditions that slaves are forced to endure
through a use of strong language such as the “horrors of its condition” and the
“groaning captivity” and “cruel oppression”. Horrific and appalling, the
description evokes a sense of pity from the audience as they imagine the insufferable
obstacles that slaves have to face on an everyday basis. The audience—still guilt-ridden
from the memory of their own battle with oppression—is able to emotionally
connect with the plight of slaves and is more likely to be swayed to take a
stance against slavery.

compelling description of slavery still resonating, Banneker offers a solution
of equality. Like a wise and patient mentor teaching his student, Banneker
proposes that society “put your their souls in their souls” and promises that
by doing so people will begin to adopt a sense of “kindness and benevolence”. In
other words, Banneker urges his audience to put themselves in the shoes of
slaves and look at the situation from the perspective of the oppressed. He
backs up his claim with religious allusions, for instance, how God created all
of mankind equal with an “impartial distribution of those rights and
privileges”. While Banneker could have suggested a radical approach to end
slavery, he gently advises society to gradually accept slaves as human beings
though a peaceful method of changing one’s own nature. By justifying equality
with religion, Banneker appeals to the religious members of his audience and
convinces them to follow in the footsteps of God and stand against slavery.

the use of description, exemplification, and solution to a problem, Banneker
argues against the inhumane nature of slavery. Appealing to their sense of
morality with historical references, graphic imagery, and religious allusions, Banneker’s
letter exerted a powerful influence on persuading people to join the
abolitionist cause.



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