The different types of bones
Type of Bone Examples of the bone The function of the bone Key features of the bone
Short bones Carpals in the wrists and tarsals in the base of the foot. To absorb impact and to provide stability and support. Cuboid shaped bone, which consists of a large flexible bone covered in a thin layer of hard bone to protect it.
Long bones Humerus located in the upper arm. Femur located in the top of the leg. Provides leverage and structure. They allow movement such as walking and lifting. Cylinder like shape, which are hard and dense. The bone is considerably long and small in width. The bone marrow within them produce blood cells.
Flat bones Ribs that cover the chest.
Skull that covers the brain. Protects the heart and other internal organs, such as the brain. Flat and thin shaped bones which consists of three layers. Structured like a sandwich, there are two layers of compact bone with a layer of spongy bone in-between.
Sesamoid bone Patellae located within the knee. To shield the tendon which allows consistent movement. Small circular seed like shape, which is found enclosed within the tendon.
Irregular bone Coccyx located at the bottom of the spine. Vertebrae within the spine. Provides stability and protects the nervous system and spinal cord. Complex shaped bones that are not like any other of the categories. Spongy bone between two thin layers of compact bone.
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The three kinds of joints
The human body contains lots of different joints that bring about movement. There are three kinds of joints. Joints that move freely, which are called synovial. Joints that are part movable, which is known as cartilaginous and joints that don’t move, which are fixed in place known as fibrous.
Gliding joint Intercarpal and intertarsal
Condyloid joint Wrist, metacarpophalangeal
Saddle joint Thumb
Ball and socket joint Shoulder and hips
Pivot joint Neck
Hinge joint Elbow and knee
The Key functions of the skeletal system
The system itself is a very complex set up which performs six crucial tasks. All tasks are required for the skeletal system to work effectively. There are two hundred and six bones within a human body. Humans are born with more bones, however as the body ages the bones fuse together to form larger bones. The bones attach to one another to form a skeleton structure that supports the body. Bones and muscles work together, when the muscles contact to allow movement of the body. Some bones such as the skull and rib cage protect delicate tissue and critical organs. The system provides storage within the bones for fat located in the bone marrow and for essential minerals like calcium, which help form strong, firm bones. The bone marrow within the system manufactures blood cells such as red, white cells and platelets.