The South China Sea is a part of the Pacific Ocean encompassing an area from the Strait ofTaiwan to Karimata and Malacca Straits. The area is important primarily because of its verybusy shipping route, and prospective, large reserves of oil and gas beneath its seabed.
Thearchipelagos, mainly the Paracel and Spratly Islands, are often subject to competing claims ofsovereignty by several countries of the region. The growing military activities of the nations inthe region, particularly China, have led to worldwide economic and social concerns.The United States of America condemns the expansionist-like military activities of China in, butnot limited to, the South China Sea.
The United States of America also believes these activitiesto be motivated solely by massive, prospective economic gain alongside the fear of separatistmovement inside the country rather than historical context as reaffirmed by China, which initself is factually ambiguous.Therefore, with the prospect of a future of stable economic condition in mind, the delegation ofthe United States of America, proposes the following solutions with the aim to solve theproblem.1. The United States of America urges the disputes over the Exclusive Economic Zones(EEZs) to be solved in a diplomatic conversation, without any use of military force,whatsoever. The United Nations should act as a mediator to prevent armed dispute inthe disputed waters. For this, the United States of America urges the committee to backthe ongoing Freedom of Navigation operation of the United States, a neutral approachto check the rule of law, until the negotiations are conducted and a mutual agreement isreached. Appealing in an international tribunal could be the last option.
2. To tackle the asymmetric relationship between the big state (China) and the smallerstates (the other claimants) in the long run, the United States urges the ASEAN to unite,and as such, reduce competition among its members, increase internal aid programs,and exchange technology and experiences. When a prosperous ASEAN is achieved, theUnited States of America firmly believes that China will take a much different stance ofcooperation rather than the offensive in the South China Sea.3. The United States of America also recommends Joint Resource Development of oil, gas,and other natural resources, such that the countries agree on a legal framework forexploration and production, including sharing fiscal revenues.
During such protocol, thecountries should suspend their disputes over the official ownership of the islands, rocks,shoals and reefs and other rights that come with sovereign ownership.4. In case of a stalemate between bilateral or multilateral agreements with regard toChina’s massive claims over the South China Sea, the United States of Americarecommends China’s claim to the waters through the illegitimate nine-dash line to bereplaced by a constitutional approach through the United Nations Convention on theLaw of the Seas.
The United States also urges China, and other nations, to abide by therulings of the International Tribunal on the Law of the Sea (ITLOS), and not to set aprecedent detrimental to international law as a whole.5. As the territories presently claimed by People’s Republic of China and Republic of China(Taiwan) were initially claimed by the Republic of China when it occupied present-dayChina and Taiwan, the disputes between the two nations’ territories should be dealtwith bilateral discussions. A joint EEZ could be a suitable alternative.6. The United States of America recognizes the complications involving the Spratly Islands.
Historical context favors China, Vietnam, and Taiwan, whereas the other nations arefavored by their geography. If multilateral discussions prove to be unsuccessful, China,Taiwan, Vietnam, Malaysia, the Philippines and Brunei should set aside their claims forthe present and establish a multilateral Spratly Management Authority. The authoritywould administer the contested area; the claimant states would be given voting sharesin a governing council, and non-claimant concerned maritime nations, such as theUnited States, would have a voice, but not a vote, in the operation of the SpratlyManagement Authority. Decisions would normally be made with a consensus, but whenvoting became necessary, substantive decisions on matters, affecting the entire areawould be taken by a two-thirds vote of the assigned shares.