THE ROLE OF MINERAL RESOURCES IN THE CONFLICT IN THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO
A RESEARCH PROJECT SUBMITTED TO THE INSTITUTE OF DIPLOMACY AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT FOR THE AWARD OF DIPLOMA IN INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS, UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI
DECLARATIONThis Research Project is my original work and has not been presented for award of a degree in any other University
This Research Project has been submitted for examination with our approval as University Supervisor.
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DEDICATIONI dedicate this research project to my family and friends who have been a source of strength , inspiration and support for different stages of my education .
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTI wish to sincerely thank my supervisor Dr. Maluki whose unwavering support , guidance and mentorship went a great deal in ensuring the success of this research project . I wish to also thank other lecturers from the institute of diplomacy and international studies who in the course of my study widened my knowledge on the subject matter . My sincere gratitude also goes to the University of Nairobi for creating a good learning experience for me during my study .
TABLE OF CONTENTS TOC o “1-3” h z u Declaration PAGEREF _Toc522888324 h iiDedication PAGEREF _Toc522888325 h iiiAcknowledgement PAGEREF _Toc522888326 h ivTable of Contents PAGEREF _Toc522888327 h vAbstract PAGEREF _Toc522888328 h viAbbreviations And Acronyms PAGEREF _Toc522888329 h viiCHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION PAGEREF _Toc522888330 h 11.1 Background PAGEREF _Toc522888332 h 11.2 Problem Statement PAGEREF _Toc522888333 h 61.3 Research Question PAGEREF _Toc522888334 h 71.4 Objective of the Study PAGEREF _Toc522888335 h 81.5 Justification of the Study PAGEREF _Toc522888336 h 81.6 Literature Review PAGEREF _Toc522888337 h 91.6.1 The Economic Influence on the D.R.C Conflict PAGEREF _Toc522888338 h 91.6.2 The Role Played by ethnicity in the D.R.C Conflict PAGEREF _Toc522888339 h 101.6.3 The Political and Social Effect of The D.R.C Conflict PAGEREF _Toc522888340 h 111.7 Theoretical Framework PAGEREF _Toc522888341 h 131.8 Hypotheses PAGEREF _Toc522888342 h 141.9 Research Methodology PAGEREF _Toc522888343 h 141.9.1 Study Design PAGEREF _Toc522888344 h 141.9.2 Study Site PAGEREF _Toc522888345 h 151.9.3 Target Population PAGEREF _Toc522888346 h 151.9.4 Sample Frame / Size PAGEREF _Toc522888347 h 151.9.5 Data Collection PAGEREF _Toc522888348 h 151.9.6 Data Analysis PAGEREF _Toc522888349 h 151.9.7 Ethical Consideration PAGEREF _Toc522888350 h 161.9.8 Limitation Of The Study PAGEREF _Toc522888351 h 161.10 Chapter Outline PAGEREF _Toc522888352 h 17CHAPTER TWO: THE DIFFERENT TACTICS USED BY ARMED GROUPS IN THE ILLEGAL TRADE OF MINERALS IN D.R.C PAGEREF _Toc522888353 h 182.0 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc522888355 h 182.2 Arms Trafficking PAGEREF _Toc522888356 h 202.3 Crime PAGEREF _Toc522888357 h 212.4 Illegal Mining And Smuggling Of Mineral Resources By Armed Groups PAGEREF _Toc522888358 h 232.5 Poaching Of Wildlife PAGEREF _Toc522888359 h 252.6 Assassination Of Political Leaders By Armed Groups PAGEREF _Toc522888360 h 272.7 Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc522888361 h 28CHAPTER THREE: THE ROLE PLAYED BY MULTINATIONAL CORPORATIONS AND INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY IN ENDING THE CONFLICT PAGEREF _Toc522888362 h 293.1 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc522888365 h 293.2 The Role Of International Electronic Manufacturers PAGEREF _Toc522888366 h 313.3 International Corporate Accountability PAGEREF _Toc522888367 h 333.4 Efforts From The International Community PAGEREF _Toc522888368 h 343.5 The European Union Efforts in Ending The use of Conflict Minerals in D.R.C PAGEREF _Toc522888369 h 36
3.6 African Union Efforts In Ending The D.R.C Conflict PAGEREF _Toc522888370 h 383.6.1 The Lusaka Accord 1999 PAGEREF _Toc522888371 h 393.6.2 Sun City Agreement 2002 PAGEREF _Toc522888372 h 403.6.3 Umoja Wetu 2009 PAGEREF _Toc522888373 h 403.7 Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc522888374 h 40CHAPTER FOUR: IMPACT OF THE CONFLICT IN THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO PAGEREF _Toc522888375 h 424.0 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc522888378 h 424.1 The Impact Of D.R.C Conflict On Women PAGEREF _Toc522888379 h 444.2 Displacement Of People PAGEREF _Toc522888380 h 464.3 The Conflict’s Impact On Natural Resources PAGEREF _Toc522888381 h 474.4 Impact Of The Conflict On Infrastructure PAGEREF _Toc522888382 h 494.5 The Impact Of Conflict On Poverty PAGEREF _Toc522888383 h 504.6 Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc522888384 h 52CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMENDATIONS PAGEREF _Toc522888385 h 545.0 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc522888387 h 545.1 Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc522888388 h 545.2 Solving Mechanism Of The Conflict PAGEREF _Toc522888389 h 565.3 Recommendations PAGEREF _Toc522888390 h 575.4 Future Study PAGEREF _Toc522888391 h 59REFERENCES PAGEREF _Toc522888392 h 60 TOC o “1-3” h z u
ABSTRACTThe Democratic Republic is one of the richest country in the world , endowed with several different rare metals and natural resources . These minerals and resources have played a major role in the conflict in D.R.C that has existed since the country gained independence making it difficult for the country to realize its full potential of political and economic growth .The link between armed groups , ethnic conflict , resources and political instability has caused a complex security problem in the country . The United Nations and other organizations have been involved in trying to find a solution to the conflict , with the United Nation deploying the largest peace keeping force in the world in D.R.C . This research project uses qualitative approach discussing the current efforts and attempts being done by multinational corporation , the European Union , the United Nations and other organizations to end the conflict in The Democratic Republic of Congo . Despite these efforts , the D.R.C still experience un ending violence with no sign to the end of the end of the conflict . As recommended , there is need for different armed groups and other stake holders in the conflict to come to a peaceful understanding and resolution to end the conflict in the country so that they can focus on positive nation building through reconciliation and justice .
ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMSADF -Allied Democratic Forces
AU -African UnionDRC -Democratic Republic of Congo
EU -European UnionFARDC -Armed Forces of The Democratic Republic of Congo
FDLR -The Democratic Forces for Liberation of Rwanda
LRA -Lord Resistance Movement
MLC -Movement for Liberation in Congo
OECD -Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development
RCD -Rally for Congolese Democracy
UN -United NationsUS -United States of America
CHAPTER ONEINTRODUCTIONThe Democratic republic of Congo formally known as Zaire is one of the least developed countries in the world , yet it is home to 24 trillion dollars’ worth of untapped minerals . In the eastern hills of the Democratic republic of Congo where violence has really manifested itself , tantalum , tungsten and tin commonly referred to as the ”three Ts” are mined by hands and eventually sold around to the electronic world in devices such as laptops , mobile phones and mp3 players . The Democratic republic of Congo is also a significant player in the worlds production of cobalt , diamond , copper and diamond . Although these minerals generate a lot of income to the Democratic republic of Congo , it has also brought a lot of political , social and economic instability in the country . Different armed and rebel groups, the government of the democratic republic of Congo and companies that benefit from the extraction and sale of these minerals in the eastern part of the D.R.C have been involved in creating the violence either directly or indirectly .
1.1BackgroundLike most African nations , the problems in the Democratic Republic of Congo in the recent past have their tap root in the colonial activities by mainly the European nations . The Democratic possessed an un characteristic amount of wealth that made it the desire of many European countries . It had an abundance of natural resources such as copper , diamond , gold , diamond , rubber among others that made it the desire of many trading corporations and companies .
At the Berlin conference in 1885 , king Leopold was granted exclusive right to privately exploit the Democratic Republic of Congo . once in the D.R.C, Leopold used an economic system in which the D.R.C was sectioned into different areas leased to different European corporations that paid Leopold fifty percent of the extracted wealth Leopold entered the D.R.C under the cloak and facade of humanitarian by making hollow promises detailing his intentions to improve the quality of life in the Democratic Republic of Congo . He promised to build schools , homes and to liberate the Congolese people from Arab slave traders . But under the rule of Leopold , very little was done to improve the well-being of the Congolese people and instead a regime was instituted that operated solely through force and might . People were tortured and forced to sign treaties that gave Leopold everything including rights to all lands and resources .
In the 20 year period of Leopold , he operated with impunity and in the process ten million people were murdered . During his reign , women and children were brutally raped and murdered and treated like animals . After king Leopold relinquished his position in the D.R.C , the Belgium parliament assumed legal control of the country , and the trading corporations and companies of Belgium and other European countries continued to dominate the course of events in the Democratic Republic of Congo.
The Democratic Republic of Congo natural resources and wealth had always been the main attraction of Belgium and with Leopold removed , the corporations were given more control and influence over the economy in the D.R.C .
The united mines of upper Katanga was founded shortly after Leopold’s reign ended and for the next fifty years , these corporations exercised the greatest influence and control over the economy and the resources of the Democratic Republic of Congo . It controlled over seventy percent of the economy of the Belgian Congo and controlled the exploitation of cobalt , copper , tin ,uranium and zinc mines which were among the richest in the world .
During this time period , the Democratic Republic of Congo became one of the world’s largest producer of copper and cobalt . Copper and cobalt extraction in Katanga in the eastern part of the Democratic Republic of Congo represented seventy five percent of the entire world production . In June of 1960 , the Democratic Republic of Congo was granted independence which threatened the future of the European economic control of the of this profitable source of revenue . But shortly after D.R.C’s independence , Belgium immediately sent troops to the country in order to protect Katanga , the city in the Democratic Republic of Congo that possessed a wealth of resources and was primary export site for these corporations . This military presence remained in the D.R.C for years, thus showing the Congolese people that they were never truly granted independence . The Belgians believed that they personal ownership of the land in D.R.C , and that the citizens of D.R.C did not warrant independence from Belgium .
This denial to own land and resources , injustice , brutal acts by Leopold and the Belgians groomed anger resentment feelings and discontent among citizens of the D.R.C that was later to be manifested in counter armed resistances and civil wars that followed against anyone who seemed to portray similar acts and policies of Leopold and the Belgians hence leading to numerous conflicts in the Democratic Republic of Congo .
In the independent Democratic Republic of Congo , Patrice Lumumba became the Prime minister of the D.R.C but was assassinated in six months . The Belgians and many European countries feared Patrice Lumumba’s influence in the D.R.C . Recently even the United states state department acknowledged playing a role in the assassination of Patrice Lumumba. He represented everything the western powers feared such as decolonization of Africa and his ad vocation of sovereignty. Probably if Lumumba had lived a little longer , he would have organized and united the nation to avoid conflicts that have plagued the Democratic Republic of Congo ever since memorial . For the next thirty years following the death of Patrice Lumumba , the Democratic Republic of Congo became a victim of centralized government with the majority of the power concentrated in one man , General Mobutu Sese Seko , who was an instrumental Congolese collaborator with the western interest in promoting the coup leading to the assassination of Patrice Lumumba . The United States of America gave him over a billion dollars in civilian and military aid during the three decades of his rule . European powers such as France also contributed a lot of finances to Mobutu but he did very little to improve the quality of life of ordinary Congolese people.
Instead he exploited his own citizens for his own material and economic gain . Even after independence D.R.C was still an economic colony of Europe that existed under the control of Belgium .The European and American corporations and investments were still intact with Mobutu in control . Mobutu became a puppet of the west and the united states who still controlled economic and political decisions in an effort to stabilize investments and operations in the country .
This kind of poor leadership skill from Mobutu proved to be costly to the people of the Democratic Republic of Congo . It brought political instability between the government and the and different armed groups who felt that there is no difference between the successive government that came to power after Patrice Lumumba and the Belgian government who mistreated them during the colonial period . These groups felt and still feel that the government in the D.R.C just like Leopold and the Belgians only care about the resources in the rich eastern part of the D.R.C and not the common people of the Democratic Republic Congo .
This has led to emergence of various different armed rebellious group who are mainly concentrated in the rich parts of eastern D.R.C where they claim to protect the resources of the people of the Democratic Republic of Congo from theft and mismanagement from foreigners and the western world . Some of these armed rebel groups include the democratic forces for liberation of Rwanda FDLR, the allied democratic forces ADF , the lord’s resistance movement and Mai – Mai among others who have a lot of influence in the rich parts of the Democratic Republic of Congo . The access to land , mineral resources and political decision making are three major issues in the eastern part of the Democratic Republic of Congo . In the lack of stable and continuous governance ,ethnicity has become a major reason for lack of peaceful co-existence between the people of D.R.C.
1.2 Problem StatementThe Democratic Republic of Congo has experienced a lot violence ever since its independence , both foreign and domestic armed groups have been actively involved in the conflict often committing attacks on both the government forces and civilians. These armed have committed and are still committing gross violations of human rights and illegal theft of resources in the eastern part of D.R.C where they control some of the villages and mining sites .
Some of these armed rebel groups such as the FDLR are involved in the illegal trade of minerals such as gold which gains them profit. These profits gained are then used to fund these armed groups activities which are usually violent in nature. Poor political leadership and corruption have also played a major role in the escalation of conflict and violence in D.R.C . Since the reign of Mobutu Sese Seko and his successors as well as other political leaders , D.R.C has lacked a leader who has shown interest in ending the conflict in the rich parts of eastern Congo . These mines , where minerals are extracted are said to be a source of political power and wealth for whoever controls them. Like Mobutu, other political leaders have also been accused of engaging in corruption and looting of revenues collected on minerals. A toxic combination of corruption and mismanagement in Democratic republic of Congo’s revenues agencies and state mining are involved in embezzlement of over 750 million dollars every year according to global witness .
The involvement of multinational corporation in the extraction and sale of minerals in the D.R.C has also played a key role in the conflict in D.R.C before and after independence. Some corporation have been indicted of funding conflict in D.R.C and involving themselves in illegal extraction of minerals in D.R.C . They have also profited from cheap buying of minerals from rebel groups , especially coltan that has a high demand in the electronic world .Multinational corporation also manipulate political leaders in D.R.C to pass friendly legislation to their organization and this has led to the exploitation of the Congolese people and their resources .
1.3 Research QuestionWhat is the role played by armed groups in eastern D.R.C in the illegal supply of minerals ?
What is the role played by multinational corporation in the D.R.C conflict ?
What is the impact of the conflict in D.R.C
1.4 Objective of the Study To examine different tactics used by armed groups in the trade of illegal minerals in D.R.C
To examine the role played by multinational corporation , international community and the steps being taken to end the conflict in D.R.C .
To analyze the impact of the D.R.C conflict on the citizens and the government.
1.5 Justification of the StudyThe purpose of this study is to highlight the real problem that has plagued the Democratic republic of Congo and the various players who have contributed and are still contributing to the conflict in D.R.C .
This study also seeks to provide recommendation to the African Union and the United Nations who currently are involved in managing the conflict in D.R.C . With the D.R.C being one of the countries with the highest number of the united nations peace keeping mission in the world , more still needs to be done by the United Nations in terms of policy by the United Nations and the African union .
This research also seeks to promote alternative ways of dealing with the conflict in D.R.C like encouraging education and promoting literacy among children and the youth in D.R.C. Disarmament among different armed groups in D.R.C need to be conducted by the United Nations and peaceful integration of these soldiers back to the society . There is also need for the government of D.R.C to take an active role in the disarmament process and creating good environment where these soldiers who are integrated back to the society are able to survive without going back to fight for armed groups . Academically , this research will add to the existing literature on D.R.C conflict and with a fresh and independent view on the what is ailing the D.R.C .
1.6 Literature Review1.6.1 The Economic Influence on the D.R.C Conflict
The economic motives of armed groups have been previously examined by different authors. Some of these authors have investigated the relationship between economic globalization , organized crime and illegal trade of natural resources .They argue that in resource rich countries such as the D.R.C characterized by political and economic misrule, poor functioning governance structures and endemic corruption , the exploitation and trade of natural resources is often controlled by transnational networks composed of state officials , private companies and corporations , brokers and political and economic elites . The members of these networks are seen to derive various personal benefits from their business operation in unstable environment, where they can easily bend the law to their advantage .
Some studies have also based their study on D.R.C. conflict to the history of D.R.C struggle for independence . Prof. Bruce Lusigan for examples highlights the relationship between king Leopold’s regime and the Belgians brutality towards the Congolese people and the current conflict in D.R.C . Lusigan explains that the Congolese people became tired of authoritarian rule and constant brutality from the Belgians that it made them rebel and fight back against anyone who seemed to act or depict brutal characters like the Belgians. This made the Congolese people rebel against authoritarian government that was formed by Mobutu and his successor Joseph Kabila . The Congolese people have felt that their resources are being taken away from them by foreigners . This has provided a perfect reason for the armed groups to continue involving themselves in illegal mining and sale of minerals in D.R.C . These minerals often end up into supply chains in the D.R.C and it’s neighboring countries. Armed groups gained prominence after the Rwandan genocide and the involvement of Ugandan forces in D.R.C. Forces like the FDLR are originally from Rwanda and play a key role the political and economic sector of D.R.C .
1.6.2 The role played by Ethnicity in the D.R.C conflict
Ethnicity has also played a major role in the conflict in D.R.C. since independence and still continues to be a key issue in the modern day D.R.C. A key factor at independence was ethnic dominance of most political parties . Only Lumumba’s party advocated for national unity and transcended national unity . Other parties were ethnic based and explicitly defended the interests of particular ethnic groups from the threat of foreigners and other ethnic groups .For example CONAKAT created on 4th October was given the explicit mission to defend the interests of authentic Katangans against strangers .
It is important to underscore the fact that the ethnic orientation of the political process was as a result of the fact that the colonial system deliberately denied space to the emergence of dynamic middle class , thus suffocating civil society as an avenue for democratic expression and making ethnic kinship a default framework for political competition . The ethnic discourse in the D.R.C was therefore not a natural result of any inherent animosities among ethnic groups as is typically asserted in some analysis . Ethnicity became politicized as a result of combination of the divide and rule agenda of the Belgian administration , which was then exploited by the members of the national elites seeking convenient means of mobilizing political support . With ethnicity at the center of the problem in D.R.C. The effects of negative ethnicity are still being felt .1.6.3 The Political and social effect of the D.R.C conflict
It has been estimated that the conflict in D.R.C. continues to kill 45,000 people each month , half of them small children in the deadliest conflict since the second world war. The international rescue committee said preventable diseases and starvation aggravated by conflict had claimed 5.4 million lives since the beginning of the second Congo war in 1998 , equivalent to the population of Denmark .
Although the war officially ended in 2002 , malaria , pneumonia and malnutrition have continued to claim enormous numbers of lives in part because of the fighting in the eastern part of D.R.C.
In a study of the 14,000 household conducted by Chris McGreal of the guardian newspaper between January 2006 and April 2007 , found that nearly half of all the deaths were of children under the age of five, who make up only 19 percent of the population. Increased rates of disease have been linked to the social and economic disturbances caused by conflict , including disruption of health services , poor food security, deterioration of infrastructure and population displacement . The prolonged conflict has also created poor governance structures and lack of accountability in D.R.C. Inaccessible roads , illiteracy and lack of health facilities still is a major challenge even after more than 50 years of independence . Lack of education has also played a role in the D.R.C conflict since lack of knowledge has reduced capacity by the public to demand for accountability ,good delivery of services to the people of D.R.C. The people of D.R.C. also do not know their rights , therefor being manipulated by politicians to advance their own agenda .
Human rights violations and in access to justice is also a big issue in D.R.C. Armed groups and the government have been indicted by the United Nations report on human rights violation . The report stated that women and children rights are mainly violated by the D.R.C government, armed groups and the United Nation peace keeping force in the D.R.C. Mass rape of women and children has been reported widely as a tool of terror used by armed groups and the D.R.C troops . According to the report co-authored by investigators from the United Nations office of the high commissioner and the United Nations peacekeeping mission in the D.R.C. These rapes could be considered as crimes against humanities and war crimes . This report urges the government to bring this perpetrators to justice .
Even though the conflict in D.R.C has existed for over a decade now , their has been very little role played by the media and the African union . The African union has failed to advocate for peace in D.R.C and creating solution to the problems in D.R.C. The African union has instead turned a blind eye to the atrocities being committed to the Congolese people . Neighboring countries such as Uganda and Rwanda have also failed to resolve the conflict in D.R.C and instead they have also actively participated in the escalation of conflict in D.R.C.
Uganda for example has been accused by the D.R.C . government of actively involving itself from illegal mining and sale of D.R.C minerals .
1.7 Theoretical FrameworkThis study is based on theory of conflict of relative deprivation advanced by Robert Merton. The relative deprivation theory which argues that it is lack of resources to sustain oneself or a group of people based on the discontent people feel when they compare themselves to other . In understanding conflict , relative deprivation theory is a view of social change according to which people take action for change in order to acquire something like wealth which they believe they should have .Social scientists , particularly political scientists and sociologists have cited relative deprivation as a potential cause of social movements and deviance , leading to extreme situation to political violence such as rioting , civil wars and other instances of social deviance such as crime . For example , some scholars of social movements explain their rise by citing grievances of people who feel deprived of what they perceive as values to which they are entitled to . Ted Robert was also a political scientist who also emphasized the importance of relative deprivation and ideology as root sources of political violence .
The violence and conflict being witnessed in the D.R.C. can be explained by relative deprivation theory . The people of D.R.C who are actively involved in the conflict can be said to have felt that the Belgians deprived them of their resource and land which they feel they are entitled to have .1.8 HypothesesThe inability of the government of Democratic Republic of Congo to secure mining sites in the eastern part of the country has fuelled conflict in the country .
The continued occupation by armed groups in parts of eastern Congo , threatens peace in the Democratic Republic of Congo .
1.9 Research Methodology Research is a road map guide of how research itself was conducted, it gives the methods, instruments for data collection and Interpretation .1.9.1 Study DesignThis study undertakes qualitative and quantitative analysis of the root causes of the D.R.C. conflict and their impact on various aspects of social and economic development at the national and regional levels .It uses historical perspective to identify factors that are common to the current and past wars , which can help to uncover deep rooted causes of the conflict.
1.9.2 Study Site
This research site was in Nairobi and possibly the Democratic Republic of Congo. Nairobi and have been chosen for key respondents on the study .
1.9.3 Target Population
The target population was the specific pool of cases that the researcher wanted to study . For the purpose of this study , the target population was 70 it was stratified through various groups as a target .
1.9.4 Sample Frame / SizeThe sample size is a portion of the population that in which the researcher intends to gather information that is ideal representation of the population opinion and feeling . The sampling procedure will be done with utmost precision to ensure validity and reliability of the data collected .
1.9.5 Data CollectionThe study uses data from reports and databases from international institution and scholars. This includes data from surveys which is used to analyze the social consequences of the war and conflict in D.R.C.1.9.6 Data AnalysisThe analysis of the root causes of the conflict considers both latent factors , which are underlying features of the society and institutions of the D.R.C through out it’s history , as well as trigger factors that are critical for understanding the time line of the conflict .
1.9.7 Ethical ConsiderationThe researcher had a moral and professional to be ethical during the research process . The researcher also intends to get permit from the National Commission for Science , Technology and Innovation which will caution the interest of the respondents . The researcher framed questions considering ethnic and political sensitivity of the respondents to protect their feelings and preference .
1.9.8 Limitation of the Study This study was limited by certain challenges which may include inadequate finances and time. The other challenge was language barrier that forced the researcher to use a translator during the study .
1.10 Chapter OutlineChapter one introduces the topic in general beginning with the introduction and background to the study . It also gives summarized information on problem statement, objectives of the study , Literature review , justification of the study , theoretical framework , hypotheses and research methodology .
Chapter two examines the role that is being played by illegal armed groups in the mining and supply of minerals in the Democratic Republic of Congo .
Chapter three devotes itself to investigate the role that has been played and is still being played by multinational corporation in the Democratic Republic of Congo’s conflict .
Chapter four analyzes the impact that the conflict has had on the citizens of the Democratic Republic of Congo and the government .
Chapter five entails conclusion and recommendation . It also gives the summary of the findings of the data and present the conclusion of the study .
CHAPTER TWOTHE DIFFERENT TACTICS USED BY ARMED GROUPS IN THE ILLEGAL TRADE OF MINERALS IN D.R.C2.0 IntroductionFor the past two decades , the quest by states and non – state actors to profit from war through illegal natural resource exploitation has raised economic and financial agenda to prominence in the waging war in the Democratic Republic of Congo . The desire by conflict actors and private domestic , regional and international networks to access , exploit and control natural resource exploitation patterns in conflict areas has mainly targeted extractive mineral resources in high demand like Coltan , diamonds . gold among others that are commonly mined in the rich eastern parts of the Democratic Republic of Congo which are on high demand in the global market .
This phenomenon has consequently redefined and reshaped the nature of armed conflict in the war in DRC between armed groups and the government . The DRC war has been characterized by illegal exploitation of natural resources which has witnessed the involvement of an increasing number of other different actors. Armed groups have been a major actors and have been implicated in as the most groups who are involved in illegal resource exploitation . Their involvement in illegal mineral resource exploitation clearly contravenes natural resource exploitation regimes , and adversely affects resource use and management in DRC’S conflict . Regulating natural resource exploitation in DRC’S conflict has remained the greatest challenge facing the DRC government . Over the years of conflict, armed groups have employed different methods and tactics that has enable them to actively involve themselves in the exploitation and sale of illegal natural resources.
2.1 Abduction of Innocent Men, Women and Children
For a very long period of time since the conflict broke in DRC , armed groups have abducted men , women and children to advance their own interest . International human rights bodies that monitor and report human rights violations across the world such as Human Rights watch , Amnesty International among others have found that abduction of women and children especially has been a weapon of war that armed groups have been busing to advance their agenda .
Armed groups such as the Mai Mai and FDLR have systematically abducted innocent civilians innocent civilians in the villages of eastern DRC where mineral mining sites are found . Victims of these abductions who are predominantly women , children and substantial minority of men mostly end up being forced to work in mining sites with little or no pay and others recruited to join the militia as soldiers . Children are often brain washed and recruited as child soldiers and end up fighting side by side with these militias . Women on the other hand also become victims of rape and violence from these armed groups . Over the past five years , the DRC has become a source , destination and transit country for men, women and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking. In 2016 , several armed groups continued to abduct and forcibly recruit Congolese men , women and children as combatants and in support roles such as guards , cooks , cleaners , messengers , spies and tax collectors at mining sites . These abductees are sometimes also forced to commit crimes for their captors such as looting and extortion . Some men , women and children working in artisanal mines in eastern DRC are subjected to forced labor , including debt bondage by these armed groups bosses . Children are subjected to forced labor in the illegal mining of diamonds , copper , gold , cobalt , tungsten ore , tantalum ore ,and tin as well as the smuggling of minerals.
2.2 Arms TraffickingDue to high prevalence of active conflict in the rich eastern part of DRC , there has been high demand and supply of arms in the region . Due to the inability by the state to provide adequate security in the areas where rebel groups control , the business of arms trafficking has really thrived . FARDC and the Mai Mai have been reported by various regional security agencies of acquiring arms from neighboring states and in the region and from transnational suppliers .
In a recent detailed study , Amnesty international reveals the role played by arms dealers, brokers and transporters from many countries including Albania , Croatia , Bosnia , Israel and others . The study traces the supply of weapons and ammunition to the governments of the Democratic Republic of Congo , Rwanda and Uganda and their subsequent distribution to armed groups and militias in the eastern DRC that have been involved in the atrocities amounting to war crimes and crimes against humanities . With the steady supply of illegal arms to different militias DRC , armed have been able to continue holding innocent civilians hostage and have also been able to control mines in some parts of eastern DRC . With these arms , they have also been able to sustain their ability to fight against the DRC government forces and establish their own controlled territories . Arms have also enabled different armed groups like the FARDC to illegally mine and safely transport looted resources out of the country . The supply of Arms to these rebel groups have continuously sabotage the peace process in DRC and as a result continued to fuel the conflict in the country. The United Nations peace keeping forces have faced challenges in dealing with these armed groups and at times been ambushed and killed .
The arms trafficked to DRC which end up in the hands of these armed groups have also helped these armed groups to conduct cross boarder attack on their neighboring countries and have left a lot of destruction on the way . With the ill equipped DRC army and security forces armed groups have found it easy to control a large number of rich mining sites of Katanga in the eastern part of the Democratic Republic of Congo .
2.3 CrimeThe conflict in the Democratic Republic of Congo has led to a lot of crime in the country. The DRC in general and the eastern part of the country is considered one of the most insecure places in the world . Armed groups have actively involved themselves in criminal activities around the country and their brutality has often threatened peace in the country . Their involvement in criminal activities such as illegal taxation of the Congolese people , rape , murder and use of violence on innocent civilians has often gone unpunished by the Congolese government due to its lack of commitment and enough resources to combat these criminal activities .
Due to lack of prosecution and lack of a stable government to counter these atrocities committed by armed groups such as the Mai Mai , FDLR and ADF have become embolden and have continued with their criminal activities without fear .
Illegal taxation on civilians and miners by armed groups for example is a major issue in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo . The involvement of these armed groups in artisanal mining , buying of mineral resources , digging for minerals and forced labor has been witnessed across the rich eastern parts of DRC . Illegal taxation is undertaken in a number of different ways by these armed groups such as obliging everyone including miners , pit owners , miner managers , mineral buyers, visitors and other people under their control to pay up to one dollar per day , charging one dollar per bag of minerals taken out of a mine , charging fifty dollars per mine every month and receiving up to one bag of minerals from site managers or pit owners every month . Armed groups have also worked directly themselves in these mines and sometimes forced other people to work for them for up to twelve hours a day with little or no pay in pits allotted to them by owners . Armed groups continued ability to perpetrate extreme violence and disruption of state authority in eastern DRC has been linked to their ability to control mines and minerals in eastern DRC and their ability to gain profit from illegal sale of these minerals in DRC and outside their country . Some armed groups in DRC have also been associated with terrorist groups with their leaders receiving support financially from known terror groups across the region . The Mai Mai have been involved in atrocious acts in Mambasa such as rape , torture , beheading , setting people on fire , cannibalism , sex slavery , kidnapping , pillaging , arson, threatening assassination and the killing of animals .
2.4 Illegal Mining and Smuggling of Mineral Resources by Armed GroupsAlthough their has been continuous efforts to stop , track and return smuggled resources to DRC , international regulation have failed to completely prevent the delivery of illegally mined gold from conflict ridden DRC into the global supply chain . Over the years gold and other resources have been smuggled out of DRC by armed groups and their proceed has been used to fund the conflict in the Democratic Republic of Congo. While Tin , Tantalum and Tungsten mined in eastern DRC are subjected to due diligence, which includes tracing and auditing of the supply chain from the mining site onwards , gold , diamonds and other mineral resources are not covered and this gap has been exploited by different armed groups . An investigation by a group of experts appointed by the United Nations security council found that illegal gold mined in DRC were sold armed groups to Dubai through Kampala and Bujumbura or undeclared when transiting through Rwanda . Smuggled gold from non-validated mining sites which is laundered into legitimate supply chain and subsequently into the international market benefits armed groups in eastern DRC .
The experts also said that exporters based in DRC regularly buy gold without knowing its actual origin and exporters directly help armed groups smuggle gold out of the country by under declaring the volume which they export . Investigations focusing on gold , which provides financial support to armed groups also found that some soldiers in the government armed forces of the Democratic Republic of Congo (FARDC) were involved in illegal exploitation of natural resources . Given that gold is the most lucrative of natural resources for exploitation by armed groups and some government soldiers , it is a cause of concern to the regional and international organizations who are trying to cut off financial supply of these armed groups so that the conflict in DRC can be stopped and the war against different armed groups can be won .
Illegal mining of gold and other natural resources are widespread in Ituri , North Kivu and South Kivu provinces as most of the sites operate without the governments approval. The gold is exported and traded illegally , depriving the DRC of significant tax revenue . Exporters also take advantage of weaknesses in governance in DRC to aggregate gold from multiple sites some of which are not validated and massively under declare exports to national and provincial authorities. With the continued lack of laws and the ability by the DRC government to enforce them , various armed groups have continued to gain a lot of profits from illegal mining , smuggling and trade of gold and other mineral resources to international market .
2.5 Poaching of WildlifeThe coltan trade and battle over other minerals and resources has also affected D.R.C’s wildlife and environment . The mining camps has heard a massive impact on local wildlife through commercial hunting for food , including the wholesale killing of endangered species such as Grauer gorilla , which now face extinction . Increase hunger and poverty from the war ,as well as more people moving into these area to exploit the minerals has resulted into hunting more wildlife such as apes for bush meat . A sharp rise of poaching especially the poaching of elephant tusks over recent years in remote parks of the Democratic Republic of Congo by the Lord Resistance Movement (LRA) has also changed the conversation and the fight against looting and smuggling of resources from the traditional minerals resources to poaching as well . Over the past five years , the LRA has been accused of killing over thirty three elephants for their tusks in Congo’s Garamba National park according to conservationists that manages the park along with Congolese authorities . According to a 2013 human rights group enough project , their report said the LRA had begun systematically killing elephants and trading poached ivory for food , weapons and ammunition and other supplies . The lack of governance and enforcement has rendered local communities and wildlife an easy target for exploitation by armed groups , while illegal wildlife trade fuels continued instability across the Democratic Republic of Congo.
Over the second half of 2012 and the early months of 2013 , Mambasa territory in the province of Orientale , in the Democratic Republic of Congo , has been the scene of escalating violence that is consequence of brutal gangs and groups running illegal poaching and mining operations coming into conflict with militarized conservation forces . The Mai Mai for example is led by an elephant poacher called Paul Sadala who is said to be driven by the desire to protect the land from conservation efforts that gives the locals limited land use rights and access to resources .
Extreme poaching of elephants and wild animals has enabled a steady supply of financial support to different armed groups across the DRC . Wild animals have become a target for these armed groups who continue to attack and kill wildlife through out the DRC . Organized poaching and trafficking of wildlife by armed groups and militias is severely threatening survival of some of the most iconic and threatened species in the region and in DRC in particular , notably elephants and giraffes. Chimpanzees have also not been spared from the onslaught of armed groups . A united nations reports says that the population of eastern Chimpanzees has declined by 80 to 98 percent , mainly because of poaching for bush meat . This is attributed to the demand of protein which is particularly intense around artisanal mining and logging camps , where bush meat is usually the main source of protein.
2.6 Assassination of Political Leaders by Armed GroupsThe long term presence of armed groups in the eastern Congo , which dates back to the mid – 1990s and in some areas even before that , has turned these groups into an integral part of the local political settlements . The resulting instability in the east has not precluded a relatively stable political settlement from emerging at the level of the Congo as a whole. Over the years political leaders have contracted and worked with armed groups to settle political scores and advance their interests . From the history of DRC , political assassination became a common way of eliminating political competition in the country .
Patrice Lumumba for example was assassinated six months after he took office as the prime minister of DRC . This continued over the years and became a common practice in the DRC political arena . Armed groups in DRC are known to target politicians who pass policies that do not favor them . Systematic killing of politicians by armed groups has scared many leaders with good intentions of fighting crime and militia in DRC . This tactic used by armed group over the years seem to work in their favor because DRC’s parliament and leaders have failed to pass tough laws and regulations that threatens the survival of these militias .With a limited political space in DRC and the inability of the government to protect its citizens and political leaders , politicians have engaged themselves with militias and armed groups and supported them who have intern ensured these politicians are re-elected back to office to serve them .
2.7 ConclusionFollowing these tactics that have been used over the years by these armed groups, it is clear that armed groups over rely on the extraction and sale of natural resources to different parts of the world , and the proceeds of these illegal trade are used to finance the conflict in the Democratic Republic of Congo . The emergence of poaching in recent years has also become a new source of resources for these armed groups who continue to endanger some of wildlife species in DRC .
The inability of the government to control and protect it’s citizens , leaders and its natural resources against these armed groups has proven costly to the government which continues to lose a sizable amount of taxes to different armed groups who control large parts of the rich eastern part of the Democratic Republic of Congo . Compromised politicians have also played a major role in the never ending conflict in DRC . Political leaders have failed to hold the government accountable and have also failed in formulating policies that ensures the safety of the Congolese people is guaranteed and the resources of DRC are protected from theft and looting by different armed groups in the Democratic Republic of Congo.
CHAPTER THREETHE ROLE PLAYED BY MULTINATIONAL CORPORATIONS ANDINTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY IN ENDING THE CONFLICT3.1 IntroductionMost conflicts worldwide are found in areas where natural resources are in abundance. Multinational corporations play a particular significant role in continuation of these conflicts. Multinational corporations as powerful economic actors are influential host environments, especially in weak states . State deflations gives corporation advantage in the public sphere, thus making their activities whether positive or negative very significant . In the Democratic Republic of Congo , the role of multinational corporation in increasing conflicts has become more apparent and questions has been often asked on what to do with these corporations whose interests have become more important than the value of human beings in conflict zones . These multinational corporation in D.R.C play a major role in funding and sustaining the conflict that has and is still being witnessed in the D.R.C .
According to a number of reports , multinational corporations role in continuing the conflicts that have led to atrocities in D.R.C have continued to be documented and presented to the international community . In 2001 for instance , the United Nations commissioned a report in which eighty five companies were named for having violated international standards of good corporate behavior , including the standards set out in the guidelines for ethical behavior of multinationals established by the organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) . According to the United Nations report , illegal exploitation of the mineral and forest resources of the Democratic Republic of Congo is taking place at an alarming rate in two phases ; mass-scale looting and the systematic and systemic exploitation of natural resources. Corporations around the world have sought to profit illegally from exploiting the DRC’s natural resources cheaply particularly Coltan , a mineral used to produce cell phones , laptops and video game consoles .
The report also indicates that a number of companies were created to facilitate illegal activities in the Democratic Republic of Congo . Others have existed in the region for decades and have joined the bandwagon to pursue the obvious financial windfalls involved in the exploitation of the country . Dozens of multinational corporations including Barclays, De Beers and Anglo American have been accused of facilitating the plunder of the D.R.C’s wealth in the scathing United Nations published report .An independent panel of experts reported to the United Security council that a scramble for gold , diamonds , cobalt and copper by army officers , government officials and entrepreneurs from Congo and neighboring African countries and generated billions of dollars which found its way to mining companies and financial institutions around the world .
However over the years , different multinational corporations have tried to change their activities by adhering to international standards of using legitimate minerals and avoiding the use of conflict minerals . These companies have created checks and balances in their organization and have consequently condemned and distanced themselves from buying or engaging in business with questionable mineral suppliers in the D.R.C who have been accused of funding and promoting the conflict in the Democratic Republic of Congo . Tech companies such as Intel and Dell have also ensured that their products are free of conflict minerals and that the minerals that are in their products can be easily traced back from the source .
3.2 The role of International Electronic Manufacturers
Most global electronic companies use minerals derived from the Democratic Republic of Congo in their products . Minerals like tantalum , tin and tungsten are commonly used in electronics and mined greatly in D.R.C. Even though these minerals are used also in other products , electronic companies consume ninety five percent of these minerals . In the section 1502 of the Dodd Frank act , the legislation compels businesses registered in the United States to reveal whether they are receiving tantalum , tungsten , tin and gold from the D.R.C or adjoining countries and if these minerals are coming from conflict zones . Over the years , companies have stated that they are not certain if they have used or continue use minerals from conflict areas in D.R.C but it is highly probable that conflict minerals from the D.R.C have been used in the manufacture of their products . Consequently, the fighting in the country has prolonged , since there is demand for the minerals in the international markets , and some rebel groups still remain involved in the mineral trade . Therefor the role of global companies is substantial in the mineral business .
After the passing of Dodd Frank act , companies have taken measures to reassure the public that they are taking the issue of conflict minerals seriously . For instance Intel has stated that while it continues to favor responsible mineral sourcing in the D.R.C and adjoining countries , it is the companies objective to use tantalum , tungsten , tin and gold in their products that do not finance arm groups in the D.R.C or adjoining countries .
Thus , the company continues to use minerals originating from the D.R.C in its products , while attempting to make sure that the minerals are coming from reliable sources . According to Dan Snow , in order to help the Congolese people profit from the natural resources their country possess , people can pressure international players in the resources extraction business to be more transparent . Moreover Heath states that the traceability schemes are significant in order to ascertain that the minerals are conflict free and that the D.R.C can form a legitimate mining industry . Thus , international businesses commonly known as multinational corporations have an important role in the mineral business in D.R.C and the adjoining countries hence their need to promote transparency in the international supply chain is significant .
Global tech companies also have a significant role in the mineral business in D.R.C, as they have the power to pressure their suppliers to follow the conflict free minerals standards. Over the years tech companies have advocated for the use of conflict free minerals which is legitimate and this has made armed groups income drop significantly hence reducing the conflict in the D.R.C .
Transparency and due diligence are essential if the conflict minerals are to be removed entirely from the international supply chain . Policy makers , international community and electronic manufactures have tried and are continuing to ensure that conflict minerals are not bought or used to process any products and continued use of legitimate mineral resources is appreciated . With the continued advocacy for the use of legitimate of mineral resources , illegal groups in D.R.C have found it difficult to sell illegal conflict minerals to the international market and this has reduced their capabilities to fund their criminal activities in the D.R.C .
3.3 International Corporate AccountabilityInternationally , different institutions have sought to reign in on corporate human violations, using measures such as reporting mechanisms , certification schemes and corporate educational initiatives .Some of these measures have been directed specifically at the problem facing D.R.C and also focused on the global phenomenon of corporate misconduct. These measures over the years have had significant merit , not only are they building awareness about the human rights obligation of businesses in the D.R.C , within both corporate sphere and the wider community , but they also contribute to ever increasing expectations of appropriate corporate behavior .
Another significant international initiative is the Organization for Economic Cooperation Development (OECD) guideline for multinational enterprises . They cover a wide range of areas including human rights and the environment , and require companies to contribute to a country’s economic , social , and environmental progress. This initiative has played a major role in trying to improve the economy and social welfare of the Democratic Republic of Congo . The OECD has also regulated corporate behaviors which is also continuing to promote corporate responsibility and has facilitated mutually agreed solutions for the problems that have plagued the Democratic Republic of Congo . The United Nations has also acknowledged the need for greater oversight of multinational corporations in D.R.C and their impact on human rights in the country .
The resurgence of the conflict in the Democratic Republic of Congo and the brutality wrought upon civilians is a reminder that multinational companies still need to actively engage in good business practices , and that they should insist on buying and using legitimate minerals from legitimate suppliers in the D.R.C . Their voice in condemning violence by armed groups also needs to be heard and their commitment to advocate for peace in the D.R.C needs to be affirmed .
3.4 Efforts from the International CommunityA lot of efforts have made been made to unveil the conflict in the Democratic Republic of Congo . The United Nations has condemned multinational corporations and countries involved in the conflict and called for sanctions against countries and individuals involved in the illegal activities , preventive measures to avoid a recurrence of the current situation, reparations of the victims of the illegal exploitation of natural resources , design for a framework of reconstruction , improvement of international mechanism and regulations governing some natural resources and security issues . Since 2001 , an expert panel of United Nations Security council has published four reports on the illegal exploitation of natural resources in the D.R.C . The third report on October 2002 , clearly states that the private sector must accept some responsibility for contributing to this resource based conflict through the purchase of illegally mined materials from the Democratic Republic of Congo .
The Oxfam report in 2001 also highlighted that the humanitarian consequences of the war in the D.R.C are horrendous and the humanitarian assistance provided by the international community has been totally inadequate when considered alongside the scale of human suffering , and when compared with the efforts made to address humanitarian cries in the D.R.C . A large proportion of humanitarian need in the country is not being met , and thousands of people who require assistance remain inaccessible hence they continue to suffer .
Amnesty international reported that in one incident , in April 2001 , fifty or more people including a six year old child were reportedly killed when a hillside collapsed into a coltan mine controlled by the Rwandese army at Mumba , in Masisi North Kivu . Amnesty international advocated for the compensation of the victims family which also led to the improvement of the mines in July 2001 by the Rwandese army .The international community still plays a crucial role in reporting and condemning illegal practices and the killing of innocent civilians in the D.R.C. International community also tries to offer solutions to problems that are plaguing the D.R.C whether internal or external .
3.5 The European Union efforts in ending the use of Conflict Minerals in D.R.CThe European Union (E.U) is one of the largest markets for tin , tantalum , tungsten, and gold from the Democratic Republic of Congo . There are over 400 companies in the European Union that import the large amounts of mined minerals from the D.R.C . Metals derived from these minerals are used in various products in Europe. Aerospace , automotive, construction , electronics , industrial machinery , lighting , packaging and tooling industries need the metals in the manufacturing of their own products , thus the E.U is also a beneficiary of the D.RC’s vast mineral resource wealth . The European Union has begun to limit the amount of minerals used in Europe , so that it would not accidentally fuel the conflict in the D.R.C and other conflict areas . At the moment , importers and manufacturers in Europe are required to investigate where exactly the minerals originate from .This system that was suggested by the European Commission for companies to prove that no conflict minerals are used in the manufacture of their products is a sign that the European Union is concerned about companies that fund the conflict in D.R.C and their commitment to end the conflict in D.R.C is clearly visible .
0n 17th May 2017 , the European Union published a new regulation on supply chain due diligence on its official European Journal . The regulation , known as the E.U conflict minerals regulations , imposes obligations on the E.U importers of tin, tantalum , tungsten , their ores and gold originating from conflict affected and high risk areas in the D.R.C to ascertain the origin of the minerals and to ensure that they are not financing armed groups. Armed groups engaged in mining operations in these regions are believed to violate human rights and use the proceeds from the sale of conflict minerals to finance their militias . The regulations is intended to disrupt the financial flows and thus stop human rights abuses in the Democratic Republic of Congo .
The European Union conflict mineral regulation is the European counterpart of U.S Dodd Frank conflict minerals legislation . To a large extent , the E.U regulation is based on the pre-existing guidance of the organization for economic co-operation and development which elaborates the concepts of supply chai responsibility and due diligence in relation to conflict minerals . With this regulation , the European Union goes beyond guidance and imposes a form of supply chain liability on E.U importers of the 3TG . Since the provision of imposing obligations on companies entered into effect on 9th July 2017 , the regulation has become effective and is directly binding to companies . The European commission has also stated that , if a member state finds an E.U importer has not complied with the regulation, it will order the firm to address the problem within a given deadline and follow up to make sure it does so .
The premise behind the European Union conflict minerals regulation is that the conflict affected or high risk areas in D.R.C , the revenues of minerals fuel the outbreak or continuation of violent conflict in D.R.C . According to the E.U legislature , armed would often use forced labor to mine minerals , they then sell those minerals to fund their activities and buy weapons . Accordingly , the regulation is to stop the financing of armed groups in the D.R.C through the trade of 3TG . Depriving these groups of finances would greatly reduce their capability to finance their illegal activities across the country and reduce the number of attacks that they would normally .
The European Union regulations on the use and importing of conflict minerals from the D.R.C shows that the E.U is interested in ending the conflict in the D.R.C and the financing of armed groups by companies in Europe whether knowingly or unknowingly . Over the years , the E.U has put a lot of focus in trying to promote peace in the D.R.C and the legal exploitation and use of minerals extracted in the D.R.C . The European Union still play a major role in trying to find a solution in ending the conflict in the Democratic Republic of Congo .
3.6 African Union efforts in ending the D.R.C conflictUnder the umbrella of the African Union , the D.R.C conflict has attracted many peace efforts . For instance , it hosts the largest peace keeping mission in the world. Organization of the African Unity later African Union played a major role in ceasing arms confrontation in the D.R.C through Peace Talks with the warring factions . That came after the United Nations had wadded into the conflict through the United Nations security council . Among various initiative embarked by the African Union, three summits were remarkable and led to a breakthrough in tackling the crisis in the D.R.C . The three summits , the sun city accord , Umoja wetu of 2009 and the Lusaka summit recorded success because they created opportunities for warring factions to begin a series of dialogues on how to resolve this crisis that had attracted armed forces of many countries in the D.R.C .
3.6.1 The Lusaka Accord 1999
This was an agreement which was signed in July 2009 between the rebels and the government of the D.R.C. All parties of the Congo conflict namely , Burundi , Rwanda and Uganda signed the agreement . The rebels were RCD and the movement for the liberation of Congo . The agreement consisted , in its main part ceasefire and security of the region . The preamble of this agreement , emphasized the principle of state sovereignty and territorial integrity of the D.R.C , making references to the United Nations and Organization of African Union about sovereignty and territorial integrity. The agreement aimed at enabling national reconciliation and establishing a new political dispensation in the country . With regard to ceasefire (Article 1) , all parties to the conflict committed to cease 24 hours after signing the agreement , all hostilities, movements and reinforcements as well as hostile actions , including hostile propaganda against one another . Article two stressed that all involved parties should commit themselves to addressing immediately the concerns of the D.R.C and her neighboring countries . This agreement played a role in reducing conflict the conflict in the D.R.C .
3.6.2 Sun City Agreement 2002This was an agreement reached in South Africa (Sun city) between movement of Liberation in Congo (MLC) and the Kabila government . The agreement set the division of the ministries between the government of Kabila and the rebels and a timetable for democratic elections . Kabila was allowed to remain as the president during the transitional period of two year with Jean – Pierre Bemba the leader of MLC serving as the prime minister . The agreement was of the view that it will unite all warring parties in the D.R.C conflict . The agreement was witnessed the then South African president Thambo Mbeki .
3.6.3 Umoja Wetu 2009At the beginning of 2009 , the African Union supported by the United Nations sought new military solution . There were negotiation between Rwanda and the D.R.C that launched offensive against FDLR , the Rwanda rebel group established in the Eastern Congo . The operation , called Umoja Wetu , was launched at the end of January 2009 in Northern Kivu . The joint military operation , seeks to root the rebel out of their strongholds and disarm the FDLR .
3.7 ConclusionThese international agreements made by different international organization such as the United Nations , the European Union , international electronic manufacturers and the African union , has contributed to a certain level of political stability and ensured the functioning of several transitional institutions . Equally it facilitated the preparation of the 2006 national elections that consolidated international support and allowed for the redefinition of regional relations based on cooperation . Improved security conditions also allowed for the implementation of a comprehensive Disarmament , Demobilization and reintegration and security sector reform . The national disarmament , demobilization and reintegration plan launched in 2003 , gave the combatants the choice of either returning to civilian life or joining the Armed forces of the Democratic Republic of Congo (FARDC) . The international community and the African Union still plays a major role in trying to mediate between political opponents in D.R.C and promoting the fight against illegal mining and sale of minerals across the African Continent . The African Union continues to be a major advocate of ending the conflict in D.R.C .
CHAPTER FOURIMPACT OF THE CONFLICT IN THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLICOF CONGO4.0 Introduction
Years of bitter and bloody war in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo has destroyed livelihood of thousands forcing them into abject poverty , violence , destruction of property, loss of life , displacement of people and insecurity in the country . Since violence broke out in the Democratic Republic of Congo just a few years after independence , millions of people in the country have lost their lives , livelihoods and their homes to different armed groups and militias that operate in different parts of the DRC. The Democratic Republic of Congo is said to be one of the most insecure places on earth , with an estimated 44,000 people losing their lives each year . The conflict which has dragged for decades has had a massive impact on different sections of the D.R.C society .
This conflict has caused political crisis in the country that has been witnessed ever since the assassination of Patrice Lumumba with no long term solution in sight . The sphere of the D.R.C society that has been massively affected by the ongoing conflict in the D.R.C is the economic sector which has been brought to its knees , despite the D.R.C being among the richest countries in the world endowed with natural resources like Coltan , tungsten , tin , gold , diamond among others , the country has failed to utilize the resources they have , to improve the social lifestyle of D.R.C citizens . Different armed groups , militias and politicians over the decades have been involved in illegal mining and smuggling of these minerals for their own gain. The violence in the D.R.C has been often referred to as Africa’s world war that has had a lot of casualties . The impact of the war has been so huge that the conflict attracted the United Nations security council to send peace keeping troops in the country to help stop the violence that was being witnessed . In the world , the D.R.C has the largest number of peace keeping force showing the extent of the violence in the country . Over the years, the mortality rate in the D.R.C has also increased with poor health facilities and lack of qualified personnel playing a major role in the collapse of the health and other public sectors in the country. Poor infrastructure and lack of accountability is also a major issue in the country the government is not being held to account on the taxes they collect from the citizens , living a gap that has been exploited by different government officials .
With the continued violence , political uncertainty and economic sabotage being at the center of the conflict in D.R.C , the impact of the conflict is still being felt in different sectors of the society in D.R.C with the citizens baring the heaviest repercussion of the conflict . The government is also finding it had to protect its citizens and its natural resources in the rich eastern parts of the D.R.C where militias and armed groups such as the FDLR , Mai Mai and the ADF have control of different mines and villages . The conflict that has been witnessed in D.R.C and still continues stills impact the D.R.C negatively making it one of the worst conflict ever to hit African continent .
4.1 The Impact of D.R.C Conflict on WomenSince the beginning of the war in 1996 , women and girls have been the most vulnerable group in the protracted armed conflict in the D.R.C with their rights being extremely violated by both the government and armed groups who have committed atrocious acts against them . Besides documented reports of mass killing of over five million women over the past decade , the war in D.R.C has been characterized by unprecedented acts of violence, rape and torture against women and girls in the country . In many United Nations and amnesty international reports and newsletters , huge number of victims of mutilations and rape during the period of war and especially the eastern part of D.R.C appear to be women and girls who cannot defend themselves . In 2010 , Cookson reported that in 2009, more than 15,000 women were raped and approximately 40 women were raped daily in the province of Kivu by armed groups. The conflict in D.R.C has fuelled continued violence against women with perpetrators facing no legal action against them . This has made it easy for women to become targeted.
Reports by the United Nations say that the conflict has been so devastating for women that the United Nations representative for sexual violence against women in conflict , Margot Wallstrom described the D.R.C as the ” rape capital of the world” . Rape still continues to date since uncontrolled militias and armed groups conflicts are still endangering the lives of women in remote areas of the D.R.C . Violence against women has been used as cheap weapon of war by both the government soldiers and armed groups . Even though armed groups and soldiers have been the major perpetrators of sexual violence against women , a recent report published by Oxfam International reveals that also a huge number of civilians have also perpetrated sexual violence against women.
Women and girls have suffered disproportionately more than men during the period of the conflict and still continue to bear the consequences of the war as combatants from both sides continue to rape women and girls without facing any consequences . The effects of rape and other forms of sexual violence against women and girls goes beyond physical suffering and disabilities , they also compromise the psychological health and social life of the victims for the rest of their lives .
The impact of the conflict on women in D.R.C has clearly been manifested by the increase in maternal mortality . Increase in maternal mortality is attributed to the deterioration of living conditions in terms of poor and under staffed medical facility and displacement of people within the country and across the neighboring countries . Over the years , conflicts has increased maternal mortality through the destruction and looting of the health infrastructure which has severely affected the availability and quality of health services . Before the conflict broke out in the D.R.C , maternal mortality was estimated at 870 deaths per 100,000 live births and after the conflict it rose to 1,289 deaths per 100,000 live births which has made higher than any other African country .
4.2 Displacement of PeopleA surge in violent conflict and inter – communal tensions forced over a million people to flee their homes . More than 4.1 million Congolese are now displaced , with 620,000 seeking refuge in neighboring countries .The conflict in the rich eastern part of D.R.C has caused loss of lives and displacement of people especially in the provinces of North Kivu , South Kivu , Maniema , Katanga and Orientale . Armed groups such as the Mai Mai , M23 and FDLR have over the years and still continue to threaten civilian population especially on lands which are considered to be rich in minerals . In March of 2014 , it was estimated that over 2.6 million people were internally displaced and more than 460,000 were displaced as refugees in neighboring countries like Burundi , Rwanda and Tanzania and in 2012 , up to 700,000 people were displaced as a result of the outbreak clashes between the M23 and armed forces of the D.R.C
At the end of the year 2014 , United Nations reported that over 2.8 million people were internally displaced . Today , the effects of the conflict in D.R.C are extremely visible . Life expectancy is 49 years compared to the global average of 70 years and 168 children born out of every 1,000 die before the age of five . In 2011 , more than a quarter of the population was sickened by malaria . More than 2.3 million citizens remain displaced from their homes within the country and thousands more have fled to neighboring countries for refuge from the ongoing conflict . Though statistics have improved slightly since the peak of the civil war in the middle of 1990’s , 71 percent of the DRC’s population continues to live the poverty line . Experts say that the country’s scale is primary factor causing many to die from easily preventable diseases such as malnutrition , malaria and pneumonia. Humanitarian and aid agencies struggle to serve D.R.C’s population as renewed rebel activities in eastern provinces of Democratic Republic of Congo continue to displace large segments of the populations .
4.3 The Conflict’s Impact on Natural ResourcesThe conflict in the D.R.C has often been referred to as a “mineral conflict” because the mineral resources have provided the incentives and means to fuel and sustain the conflicts in different parts of D.R.C .The connection between natural resources and conflicts in the country also has links to poor governance which provides opportunity for embezzlement and unregulated exploitation of both natural resources and people who are used as miners, creating an environment where conflicts and ineffectively regulated exploitation of natural resources coexist . Armed groups and rebel groups have taken advantage of the inability of the D.R.C government to control and regulate the sector and have engaged in looting and illegal exploitation and sale of these highly rare minerals to different parts of the world in exchange of arms and money to fund their activities in the country .
The conflict in the country has affected the natural resource sector in two major ways . First , it has prevented the country from reaching its full potential of harnessing its natural resources and improving its economy . The D.R.C has not been able to take full advantage of commodity booms because of the protracted conflict in the country . The production and exports of minerals has been hampered by insecurity which has particularly undermined industrial mining . Most of the production in D.R.C is from artisanal work and the insecurity and conflict has provided opportunities for smuggling which has led the government not to gain from taxes and include them in the official national statistics .
Secondly , the conflict has worsened the governance problems in the natural sector . The governance problems such as wrangles among leaders in the sector has led to undermined production especially by shifting the balance against industrial production in favor of artisanal mining . In addition , the conflict has hampered the ability of the government to collect the full potential of revenue from natural resources exploitation and exports . The amount over the years that have been collected and still being collected in tax revenue remains to be substantially lower than the amount due based on the volume of production and export . On the government side , tax collection is hampered by capacity constraints , ineffective resource taxation system and leakages due to corruption . Despite the recent efforts by the D.R.C government to improve the management of the mineral sector by revising mining code , there are still structural constraints that still continue to hinder and affect revenue collection in the sector . The complex tax system which includes multiplicity of taxes and levies undermines efficiency in revenue collection by the government , opening opportunities for tax evasion on the private sector .The artisanal mining sub – sector has been vulnerable to conflicts while at the same time , it has been used to fuel conflict . While it constitutes an opportunity for job creation , and a source of livelihood for rural population , it has also been a source of insecurity by being a source of financing for militias and various armed groups hence fuelling and perpetuating violence especially in the Eastern part of the Democratic Republic of Congo.
4.4 Impact of the Conflict on Infrastructure
The D.R.C is one of the most heavily endowed countries on the African continent in infrastructure development potential . For instance , due to its immense hydropower endowment , the country could produce more than twice the power currently generated in the entire sub – Saharan region , yet the D.R.C faces the most daunting infrastructure challenges in the African continent . The country’s infrastructure problem can be categorized into three levels which include inadequate coverage of infrastructure in almost all dimensions including power , transport , water and sanitation , deteriorated conditions of existing infrastructure especially in the transport sector and high cost of infrastructure service especially in the transport sector .
The country’s infrastructure has been severely affected by conflicts in the different ways . The conflict has affected both hard and soft infrastructure as well as the utilization of installed infrastructure therefor affecting the stock and quality of infrastructure as well as the costs of infrastructure services .The conflict has caused the government to neglect and take care of existing infrastructure . During the conflict period , little investment has been undertaken in hard infrastructure to expand existing stocks and new plans have not been put in place to improve the infrastructure of the country . The conflict has also undermined regulation in the infrastructure sector which negatively affects efficiency , costs and even security of existing infrastructure . As is the case in many African countries , the transport sector is highly oligopolistic resulting in high freight costs .
The oligopolistic structure of the transport sector in the D.R.C is a challenge due to important political economy issues associated with industrial organization of the sector . Given the large size of the country , parts of the country are functionally landlocked and therefor depend on their neighbors to access to international markets . The eastern , northern and southern parts of D.R.C depend heavily on their neighbors for imports and exports . With the continued violence that is still intense in the country , the government will not be able to effectively improve the infrastructure of the country . Lack of security in the country has made it difficult for the government to plan and implement new projects . The conflict has affected almost every infrastructure sector of the country , and unless the ongoing conflict stops , the government will be unable to provide its citizens with good infrastructure both hard and soft .
4.5 The Impact of Conflict on PovertyDespite a population of 77 million people , 80 million acres of land suitable for farming and an abundance of over 1,100 different rare metals and minerals , the D.R.C poverty rate remains among the highest in the world . While many consider it to be the poorest country in the world , the most recent United Nations Human Development index of 2015 ranked the country at 176 out of 187 countries . Over the years of civil war and conflict, inflation rates have increased by 191 percent and over 81% of the population remain under the international poverty line which is currently 1.25 dollar per day .
One of the main causes of poverty in the Democratic Republic of the Congo is lack of sustainable sources of income due to the violence that is being witnessed in the country . The D.R.C has one of the highest incidences of poverty in the world . D.R.C is number One out of eleven top poor countries in the world .At a rate of 71.34 , its incidence of poverty is extremely high , even in comparison with other Poor countries in the central Africa .However , this poverty is not evenly distributed . The IMF estimates that poverty is more prevalent in rural areas than in urban areas while provinces of Bndundu and Sud-Kivu have a poverty incidence of over 85% compared to the capital city Kinshasa .
The Democratic Republic of Congo’s high poverty rate is partly attributed to the ongoing ethnic conflict and the civil war that has taken place in the country between government troops and rebel groups in Eastern province in the country . The sustained levels of violence have caused massive infrastructural damage , internal displacement , loss of property and lives . In order the country to reduce the poverty rate among its citizens , the government embarked on following the IMF recommended reforms to improve its microeconomic environment and initiated policies to support economic growth as well as improve provision of its basic social services . The other reasons for high poverty rates in D.R.C stem from major political instability that has rocked the country since independence and corruption particularly in the mining industry . In addition to this , there are vast productive lands that are control of militia groups , the land where many mines are located allowing them to be the financial beneficiaries instead of the citizens .
Moreover , as a result of extreme poverty within the country there is an ever increasing prevalence with regard to the spread of HIV and AIDS in addition to notable school enrolment .
4.6 ConclusionOver the period of the conflict , the D.R.C has been impacted negatively on different fronts of its society , with no sign of the conflict ending . Despite many measures taken by both the government and international organizations such as the United Nations , Amnesty International and others to try and mitigate the impact of the conflict , it seems that only the end of the war in the country will change the negative impact the country has endured over the years . The government and active armed groups such as the Mai Mai and FDLR need to negotiate and find a permanent solution that will restore peace and order in the country which will later have positive impact on the country’s economy and other sectors that have suffered due to the ongoing conflict . The government also needs to establish control in all parts of the country and protect its citizens from forceful displacement so as to enable them engage in income generating activities that will improve their living standards .
With the ongoing violence in different parts of the country and the current political uncertainty in the country , the citizens of the D.R.C are still facing poverty , insecurity and poor health . Unless the violence stops , D.R.C will continue facing numerous challenges that they are unable to solve .
CHAPTER FIVESUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMENDATIONS5.0 IntroductionThis chapter present summary of the finding according to the objectives of the study , conclusion and recommendations .
5.1 ConclusionThe D.R.C conflict has had not only a ripple effect on the country , but also on the region and Africa at large . This study has shown that despite a lot of factors fueling the conflict in the country , the rich minerals found in the eastern part of the country plays a major role than all other factors in the conflict . With different armed groups and militias being formed with an ideology of protecting the natural resources of the people of D.R.C from foreigners and the government , the war in The Democratic Republic of Congo has been referred to as “mineral conflict.” These rare minerals that the country has been endowed with , has turned out to be its curse by creating incentives and finance of sustaining the war . The minerals in eastern provinces of Katanga and North Kivu of D.R.C have attracted different groups including armed groups and militias from neighboring countries of Rwanda and Uganda who want to benefit from the minerals to finance their activities . The conflict in D.R.C has created security , political and economic gap in the country which has made its natural resources to be exploited illegally by different armed groups , companies and even government officials without the approval of the country .
With the protracted conflict in D.R.C still continuing and creating a massive havoc in the country , the civilian populations has been the mainly affected group . Women being raped, innocent people being killed and villages being raided and torched causing displacement has been the norm in the eastern parts of the D.R.C where different armed groups have almost total control of the region . People’s lands have been taken away from them forcefully and others including children have been forced to work on mining sites forcefully with little or no pay . With the political crisis in the country having existed after the assassination of Patrice Lumumba , the government has been un able to consolidate its power across the country having total control , this has given armed groups the ability to rebel against any regime that has come to power and keeping the rich eastern part of the country under them .
The existence of undisciplined and unpaid army , the militarization of the eastern part of country’s economy , the extent of corruption among the country’s elite means that a lot of changes and reform in the army and other sectors of the country needs to be undertaken in order for the country to realize its full potential and compete with the rest of the world economically . The government also needs to use different methods in trying to end the conflict by negotiating with different militias and providing incentives like job opportunities to the members of the armed groups in order to end the conflict in the eastern part of the country .
5.2 Solving Mechanism of the ConflictSolving internal conflict has been practiced for a very long time in the history of conflict resolution process . Mediation , negotiation and other forms of conflict resolution have been successful in ending conflicts in different parts of the world . The D.R.C government and the African union needs to explore and emphasize these different methods in trying to solve the conflict in D.R.C .
The African Union needs to initiate mediation in D.R.C to try and solve the conflict , Mediation for instance has different stages , first an understanding and gaining access to the internal armed conflicts contributes to a better understanding of the mediation process. Second , an investigation of the root causes of the conflict facilitates examination of the mediation process from the perspectives of both the intermediaries and the parties . And third , an objective that the mediation team sets not only to end the conflict but also identify the underlying problems that has fueled the conflict for a very long time .
Some of the example of successful mediation are under the Organization of African Union was the Rwandan crisis of 1994 where the heart of the conflict was based on the struggle to control the central authority . The Organization of African Union played a major role in the Mediation process and Tanzania was selected as a the key mediator . The African union discussed he relevance of having a new mechanism for conflict resolution and its active involvement in the Rwandan conflict was a practical part of the objective and was an expression of Africa’s commitment to find its own solutions to its problems .
With the establishment of the African Union whose mandate is to promote peace , security and stability of the African continent , the Organization needs to be more actively involved in trying to end the conflict in D.R.C more than they are now . With leading mediators in the continent such as Kofi Annan and Benjamin Mkappa , the African continents needs give serious attention to the ever deteriorating situation in D.R.C so that D.R.C can also experience peace , political stability and economic growth just like other African countries in the continent .
Up to this study , the situation in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo is still deteriorating, the rebels are still controlling large parts of Eastern D.R.C . This study recommends that the African Union should deploy military forces to strengthen the D.R.C military force in combating the militias and armed groups that have terrorized citizens in the Eastern part of the D.R.C . With the experience of the African Mission in Burundi (AMIS) and the African mission in Somalia (AMISOM) and despite the lack of logistical , financial and political support , the African Union has demonstrated that the African Union can be able to combat the problem that has plagued the D.R.C in decades and consequently end the conflict in the country .
The African Union also needs to be strict on any organizations or member states that are involved in funding the conflict in D.R.C . Members of the African Union who are found to be actively involved in the conflict and are gaining from the natural resources or other financial gains need to be expelled from the Organization and other stern measures need to be taken against them so that states who actively involve themselves in fuelling the conflict in D.R.C withdraw from D.R.C so that the country can experience peace and stability .
Each member of the African Union also need to commit to share risk and responsibilities as well as benefits of collective security .They also need to commit to exit the country if the rebel and militias are defeated so that the Democratic Republic of Congo can charter its own political and economic goals by itself . This study recommends that the Democratic Republic of Congo government , the United Nation and the African Union should conduct a disarmament campaign against all un lawful civilians , militias and armed groups so that the D.R.C’s security forces can be able to take control of security in the entire country . The D.R.C government also needs to re integrate armed fighters back to the society and provide them with an alternative means of income so as to prevent them from going back to fight against the government and other militias .
This study also recommends that the D.R.C government undertake peace building process and address all historical injustices that the victims of the war in D.R.C have undergone . The should establish peaceful resolution methods at the lowest levels of the society such as the villages so that victims and the perpetrators of the violence in D.R.C can resolve their differences peacefully . The government should compensate everybody that has lost their lands , properties and their family members to end the animosity between the victims and perpetrators of the conflict in D.R.C . If these recommendations are implemented to the latter , The Democratic Republic of Congo will see a new dawn free from violence and conflict and this will set a stage for peace and national prosperity in the country .
5.4 Future StudyA number of previous study have only diagnosed the problem in D.R.C and failed to provide a solution to the ongoing conflict in the country , this study’s view is that future research should focus on the role that different organizations in and out of the D.R.C need to undertake in order to stop the protracted conflict that has caused destruction and poverty in D.R.C . Solutions to ending the conflict in the country needs to be the key factor of any future study in the D.R.C .
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