The weak democracy is either inexistent or fragile

The values of trust and that of tolerance according to the already classics of civic culture l (Almond and Verba 1963, and Putman1992) were found to be related to strong society and stable democracy. Interpersonal trust it was argued, leads to cooperation and this in turn contributes to maintaining democracy. In their surveys the authors revealed that democracy was stable in The UK and the US because they demonstrated higher level of trust than Italy and Mexico. Interpersonal trust results from the extent and quality of the associative life, where it is scare and weak democracy is either inexistent or fragile (Putman, 1993). On the footsteps of his predecessors, Inglehart (1999), using large set of data gathered from 60 countries, found that there was a statistically positive relationship between trust and democracy.
As for the concept of Social tolerance, it is of utmost importance for it is a warranty for social cohesion in society, because it indicates how people live with each other peacefully. Social Cohesion, a main concept in sociology, is a measure for the closeness in a society. The lack of cohesiveness in society instigates social disintegration and anomie. Social tolerance in most western studies and surveys is taken to mean moral tolerance and permissiveness and it measured by questions on issues such as abortion, homosexuality, divorce, euthanasia, prostitution, having casual sex and suicide. In this study, we propose to use other proxies, because, first the present survey does not include questions on these issues, and secondly, even if it did it is not sur that they measure social tolerance in the Algerian cultural context. Asking questions that depict attitudes towards the others who are different to majority Algerian in religion or race or ethnicity may reflect better the concept of tolerance. And therefore, the values of interpersonal trust, tolerance to other religions, denominations (sects), races, immigrants as alternatives values to measuring the construct of social tolerance were chosen. These values were worded in the questionnaire as follow: 1- generally speaking, do you think most people are trustworthy or not? 2- For each of the following type of people, please tell me whether you would like having people from this group as neighbors, or not? A- People of a different religion, B- people of a different race, C- Immigrants or foreign workers, D- people of a different sect of Islam. The table below presents the responses for the four waves, the last question was not asked in the third wave.

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