TITLE bYABJJWSHOQ JKLOUS IO THESIS Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Applied Linguistics University of Lahore, 2018 TOPIC TO BE REPEATED ON THIS PAGE ABSTRACT CHAPTER 1INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background of the Study One of the most commonly used languages in the world is English language, most of the people around the seven continents are speaking or dealing with English language, officially, or as native language, and some other countries who do not use it at all, but if they do not speak it fluently they are -at least- familiar with the language. The English language is having nowadays a huge demand for so many professions, studies or any other international activities. To be in touch with the outer world we have to learn English, and it depends on the need of a learner or student for their need of learning English, it might be for an academic purpose, traveling purpose, business purpose, or maybe as a love for exploring more about a language.
The need of English is increasing day by day for different uses in life for many fields as in business, traveling, education, media, and sports, the need of English made them easier for the world to understand and reach to every house’s doorstep. English has affected the other languages, the users of English they do increase for the sake of perfect communication between two different parts of the world, in order to avoid miscommunication, and some people do have to hire a particular translator for better connection, This process mostly happens in countries that do not use English as their native language. English has travel to be used in all over the world, now it’s been as a common language for many different countries, according to Kachru (1985), in his partition of world English (Global English), English has three different concentric circles: Inner circle which includes the countries who use English as native language as in (USA, UK), Outer circle which includes the countries who use English in formal systems as in (Pakistan, Singapore), and Expanding circle which includes the countries which use English as a Second Language as in (Arab Countries “Palestine”, Turkey), the difference is that at the Expanding circle the countries do not use English as a formal language, they do teach English at their institutes (schools and universities).
For the countries which use English as a second language they do face some difficulties in their speaking production, in pronunciation and their spelling, particularly for Arab countries, in Arabic language there are many sounds of alphabets which require more stress on the sound in order to pronounce it clearly, the countries which do use Arabic language as their mother tongue, they do face difficulties in speaking English language, because of some missing sounds of English language from Arabic language and vice versa, for example; the sounds /p/, /g/, and /?/ in English language, do not exist in Arabic language, and the sounds /?/, /?/, /?/, /?/, /?/, and /?/ in Arabic language, do not exist in English language. The pronunciations of non-common sounds between the two languages make the difficulties of speaking English, there are other factors that face the students while producing a speech, will be discussed later in this study (J. E. Flege, R. Port, 1981).1.
2 Research Questions RQ1 – What are the English Speaking difficulties that the Palestinian Students in the Universities of Lahore face? RQ2 – How can these English Speaking difficulties faced by the Palestinian Students in the Universities of Lahore be removed? RQ3 – How can the change in curriculum impact these English Speaking difficulties?1.3 Objective of The Study The present study has the following objectives:· To find the difficulties of speaking English among the Palestinian students.· To check the abilities of Palestinian students in speaking English at the university level.· To help the students improve their English speaking skill.· To suggest recommendations in the light of finding.· To review the existing relevant literature .1.4 Significance of the Study The significance of the study is that it would highlight major factors and give in detail information with reference to particular area of the investigation.
It would be helpful to the researchers to explore the remedial measure for these particular difficulties. The study would be a guideline for the Palestinian students who are out of their country.1.5 Proposed MethodologyThe study Population The populations of the study are Palestinian students in the universities of Lahore in Pakistan.Sample The target of the research is 50 students from three different universities in Lahore city.
Tools The tools are: 1- questionnaire is given to the students to fill it with different question and answers, 2- interview is held with the student by the researcher to let them answer certain questions and talk about any random topic, the aim of the researcher is to test their 1) grammatical use 2) pronunciation of words 3) ability of speaking without hesitation, to point out their speaking difficulties.Method Observation/ field notesApproach Quantitative + QualitativeQuantitative test applyQualitative 1.6 Delimitation of study The study is considered about the Palestinian students in Lahore, that it might help the students focus more often on their abilities to use the English language, more commonly speaking skill.1.7 Organization of the ThesisChapter 1 presents the Introduction to the Study, and the materials that are used in the Study, Chapter 2 presents the Review of Literature related to Study, Chapter 3 shows the methods that are used to collect information’s that are related to research questions, Chapter 4 presents the Data Analysis of the Study, Chapter 5 presents the Discussion of the Study, Chapter 6 includes Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation, and Chapter 6 presents the References of the Study. CHAPTER 2LITERATURE REVIEW2.
1 Speaking Skill Speaking is an act of producing a vocal sound, which means to converse and express someone thoughts and feelings in a particular spoken language. It does exist to convey the information’s between two different persons, and speaking is the door where someone can pass through to communicate with other people. Speaking is the productive skill in oral communication, and it has three different situations, where do the speakers find themselves in Interactive, partially interactive, and non-interactive situations (M. Bashir, M.
Azeem, A. H. Dogar, 2011).2.1.1 Interactive Situations Includes face-to-face conversations and mobile calls, in which we use listening and speaking alternately, where the listener can ask for clarification, repetition, and slower speech from the other partner of a communication (N.K. Baym, 2004).
2.1.2 Partially Interactive Situations Where the speaker is giving a speech to a live audience and the convention is that the audience does not interrupt the speech.2.1.3 Non Interactive Situations Where the listener cannot see the speaker and interact with the speech as in songs and radio broadcast.2.
2 Factors Affect Speaking English Language Speaking English is the most difficult task for English language learners, and it will remain the most difficult skill for the majority of learners, and they are still unable to communicate with others orally (Zhang, 2009). There are many factor which cause difficulties, and those factors are, (Ur, 1996):2.2.1 Inhabitation: learners are worried about making mistakes while speaking in a foreign language, and they are afraid of being criticized by others to them, or they are shy of getting others attraction by their speech.2.2.
2 Nothing to say: the learners may not have the motivation to express their feelings or thoughts; they keep silence and do not think in the target language.2.2.3 Low or uneven participation: only one participant can talk at a time because of large classes and tendency of some learners to dominate, while others speak very little or not at all.2.2.4 Mother-tongue use: learners who do share the same mother-tongue tend to use it because it’s easier and the learners will feel less stress if they speak in their mother-tongue, in the classroom or in other activities out of the classroom.
2.3 English Language Speaking Purposes Torky S. A. E.
(2006) the purpose of speaking any language as a second language can be either transactional or interactional. For speaking English as a second language (ESL) there are some differences between both transactional and interactional discourse. In transactional discourse, language is primarily used for communicating information. In interactional discourse, language is used for establishing or maintaining a relationship. According to the study of (ESP) English for specific purpose, which addresses the communicative needs and practices of a particular group, the learners learn a language for a specific need or purposes, these purposes might be as according to Hutchinson, T. and Waters, A. (1987): (EAP) English for academic purpose, (EOP) English for occupational purpose, or (EST) science and technology. Kingen (2000) according to his analysis of speaking purposes, combines the purposes of speaking, transactional and interactional, into twelve categories:2.
3.1 Personal: to express personal feelings and thoughts.2.3.2 Descriptive: to describe someone or something, reality or imagination.2.3.
3 Narrative: to create a speech or to make a story with events.2.3.4 Instructive: to give any instruction or to provide any direction made to create outcomes.2.3.
5 Questioning: seeking for information by asking questions.2.3.6 Comparative: comparing between two or more objects, people, ideas, or opinions to make judgments about them.2.3.7 Imaginative: expressing mental images of people, place, events, and objects.2.
3.8 Predictive: predicting possible future events.2.3.9 Interpretative: exploring meanings, creating hypothetical deductions, and considering inferences.2.3.10 Persuasive: changing others’ opinions, attitudes, or points of view, or influencing the behavior of others in some way.
2.3.11 Explanatory: explaining, clarifying, and supporting ideas and opinions.2.3.12 Informative: sharing information with others.
2.4 Speaking English For Arabs Arab learners of English language run across problems in speaking English language. Learners of English language, for example, in Syria the students do learn English in their native language (Arabic), they do learn English only by private tuitions for English language, in their classrooms where the teachers use their native language (Arabic) to teach the students at schools or any other institutions, there is a little use of English language by teachers in order to deliver a lecture for their students, and to learn English language by this way there will be a little possibility to acquire English as second or foreign language. This way is only used if the learner is about to leave the country and use English language for particular time at a particular place (Rababah, G. 2002). The use of English language in Arab countries is not compulsory at any proficiency or occupation, Arabic language is the one which is used most of the time, the people do prefer to communicate in their own native language for better understanding and sharing of thoughts. Arabs do encounter sharp lexical problems while involving in any English communication event or situation (Zughoul, 1984). In most of Arab countries, there are particular aims of learning English as a foreign language, for example, in Jordan students are supposed to be able to communicate by different linguistic functions made for specific everyday events.
In Sudan, as Kambal (1980) did characterize the errors in the verb phrase: verb formation, tense, and subject-verb agreement. And he argued about errors in: tense sequence, tense substitution, tense marker, deletion, and confusion of perfect tenses. In Egypt, the learner they do face difficulty of conveying any message, their mother tongue accent is a little different from the basic Arabic one, for their pronunciation of sounds which make these differences, for example, the sentence ( this is an apple) they pronounce it as (thisi isi an apple), another example, (whatever) they pronounce it as (what-efear), that which made this difficulty for the Egyptian learners to acquire English language, or in particular to deliver any message to someone about something. According to Wahba (1998) “the Egyptian students face certain problems related to pronunciation. Some of these problems are related to stress, others are related to intonation. However, most of these problems can be attributed to the differences in pronunciation between English and Arabic”. In Yemen and Saudi Arabia, the case is different for the students start to have English classes and courses at schools after their 7th grade (first preparatory class), within the low practice of English language for the learners, still they are accepted at any university of the Arabic world, that what makes the issue increasing by the passage of the time (abbad, A. T.
, 1998). Arabs do find it difficult to communicate in their target language, most often, the method of teaching is the matter of creating these issues for the learners, because in Arab countries they do use the GTM (grammar translation method) in teaching their students, the students are not trained well for the use of language in communication purpose.2.5 Speaking English For Palestinian Speaking English in Palestine has the same issues of other Arab countries, where teachers do not focus on developing listening and speaking skills. For the Palestinian students, English language is not used at all, perhaps some privet institutes where English is used to teach any English course, but the lecture will be delivered to students, but teachers, sometimes, tend to explain things in native language for the students. And for the government institutes the case is totally different, where the lectures are delivered in Arabic only. The main aim of teaching English for Palestinian students is to make them able to communicate with other English speakers by using productive skills (speaking and writing).
For these students, they will not be aware of their errors while communicating and in case, the students are aware of these errors then they will face difficulty of expressing their feelings and thoughts, even they have got a great capacity of memorizing vocabulary, they afraid of committing mistakes in front of their teachers and friends, they do avoid using the language in order of not getting involved in any situation that will make them use English. Teachers in Palestine do use GTM in their teaching method, where teachers focus only at reading and writing skills to be taught in their classes, while speaking and listening are having less importance in their lectures (A. M. M. AL-Nakhalah, 2016). The method of teaching English in Palestine will not prepare the students to gain the ability of communicating with the outer world or foreigner students, their improvement in English language speaking will depend only at their environment and the courage to stand and speak out what they have in mind, but still some students do have anxiety in speaking which is a real problem for them, and it has the main negative impact at the Palestinian students, at any level of their lives and at any place they go, where as the phenomena of anxiety will play as a main part of this Study.
2.6 Speaking English In Pakistan For Palestinian Students In Pakistan, from the initial schools teachers do teach their students the grammatical structures of English language, so that the students can go through the skills smoothly, listening, speaking, reading, and writing. In reading, teachers do provide a particular books for the students and the students should read these books as according to their teachers’ recommendation, that will help the students to speak and make sounds that to be used in their daily lives, and in those books, the teachers will take out a specific text and translate it into native language to their students, so that the students can understand what they are reading actually, for writing skill, teachers will give the students any text to get it copied by their own hand writing, and the teachers also focus on dictation in the class. For the Pakistani schools, they also do give less importance for speaking and listening skills for the students, but at the university level, where the students are asked to know what English actually is, here comes the difficulty, when Pakistani and Palestinian students meet, somehow, both are facing the issues of speaking and communicating, where the Pakistani students cannot understand the accent of the Palestinian students, because of their mother-tongue impact at English language sounds.
In Pakistan, the use of the sounds is little bet different from its original pronunciations of it, and these differences come in those sounds: the sound /v/ is pronounced as /w/ and vice versa, for example the word where is pronounced as /vhare/, and the word /verb/ is pronounced as /werb/, where also for other sounds as /?/ as in thigh and /?/as in thy, for example the word /thigh/ the actual pronunciation of this sound is /?igh/, but its pronounced in Pakistan as /?igh/. Same case for the Palestinian, as mentioned in the previous topic (Speaking English for Palestinian) and in chapter one, topic (Background of the Study) the mother-tongue in Palestine is Arabic, and the Palestinian students do face some difficulties in pronouncing some sounds as in /p/, /g/, and /?/, for example the words pineapple, produce, Pakistan etc are pronounced as /binable/, /broduce/, and /bakistan/, the other sounds /g/ and /?/ are learnt while learning English language which the students have less stress for pronouncing these sounds in any situation. CHAPTER 3RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 184.108.40.206.
43.5 CHAPTER 4DATA ANALYSIS 220.127.116.11.44.
5 CHAPTER 5DISCUSSION 18.104.22.168.45.5 CHAPTER 6SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 6.16.
26.3 REFERNCESKachru, B. B.
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Flege, J. E., & Port, R. (1981). Cross-language phonetic interference: Arabic to English. Language and speech, 24(2), 125-146.Baym, N.
K., Zhang, Y. B., & Lin, M.
C. (2004). Social interactions across media: Interpersonal communication on the internet, telephone and face-to-face. New Media & Society, 6(3), 299-318.Bashir, M., Azeem, M., & Dogar, A. H.
(2011). Factor effecting students’ English speaking skills. British journal of arts and social sciences, 2(1), 34-50.Al Hosni, S. (2014). Speaking difficulties encountered by young EFL learners.
International Journal on Studies in English Language and Literature (IJSELL), 2(6), 22-30.Zhang, F., & Yin, P.
(2009). A study of pronunciation problems of English learners in China. Asian social science, 5(6), 141.Ur, P. (1996).
A course in language teaching: Theory and practice. Great Britain.Torky, S. A. E.
(2006). The Effectiveness of a Task-Based Instruction Program in Developing the English Language Speaking Skills of Secondary Stage Students. Online Submission.Hyland, K.
(2007). English for specific purposes. International handbook of English language teaching, 391-402.Hutchinson, T., & Waters, A. (1987).
English for specific purposes. Cambridge University Press.Kingen, S. (2000). Teaching language arts in middle schools: Connecting and communicating. Routledge.Rababah, G.
(2002). Communication Problems Facing Arab Learners of English.Zughoul, M. R., & Taminian, L.
(1984). The linguistic attitudes of Arab university students: Factorial structure and intervening variables. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 1984(50), 155-179.Kambal, M. A. A. (1981).
AN ANALYSIS OF KHARTOUM UNIVERSITY STUDENTS’COMPOSITION ERRORS WITH IMPLICATIONS FOR REMEDIAL ENGLISH IN THE CONTEXT OF ARABICIZATION.Abbad, A. T. (1988). An analysis of communicative competence features in English language texts in Yemen Arab republic (Doctoral dissertation, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign).
Al-Nakhalah, A. M. M. Investigating the Difficulties and Problems Faced by the English Language Students of Al Quds Open University in Legal Translation Process.
APPENDIX I APPENDIX II NOTES: