To conduct the research study methods, the research onion model was adopted. In order to describe the stages through which formulating an effective methodology. The research philosophy creates the starting point first, the appropriate research approach which is adopted in the second. The research strategy is adopted in the third step. Identifies the time horizon in the fourth step and represents the data collection methodology has identified in the fifth step. (Saunders et al, 2007)
The first process was topic selection, the knowledge, observation and interest on a subject finalized the topic. The nature of the reality being investigated. It is the underlying definition of the nature of knowledge. After that founded dependent and independent variable according to the main objectives and specific objectives. Theories and literature have been consulted to support the research. Developed research questions and hypothesis, using the literature. The quantitative research design is chosen for hypothesis testing. The type of investigation is a correction study attempting to explain the variation of the dependent variable (purchase decision) by the five independent variables (purpose, awareness, eBook platforms, e-retailers and income level). Performed operationalization to find indicators through variables according to the concept. This has helped to find measurable factors and develop the questionnaire. The next step was to collect data by using the method has planned and analyzed the data for selected theories. Cross-sectional time horizon used for the reteach, the research was limited a specific time frame, which was 15 weeks. Primary data collection had to use here, hence no previous consequent data on this research topic. A review mechanism of the self-administrated questionnaire was designed to collect primary data for this study.
3.2 Sample Rationale
Neptune publication was consisting of the customer base, more than 600 customers, all are readers. The targeted sample was the organization customers. The readers consist of students to elders. In this study, the groups of respondents were narrow down to individuals who have the experiences of purchasing books and eBooks online and those who have the plan to purchase eBooks online in the future. The selected audience has experience in online purchasing and the fare literacy of IT, English and digital reading.
Research using an inductive approach is likely to be particularly concerned with the context in which such events were taking place. Therefore, the study of a small sample of subjects might be more appropriate than a large number as with the deductive approach. (Saunders et al, 2007 p. 146) Selected 234 readers and this has selected using Table for determining sample size for finite population krejcie and Morgan table. (kenpro.org, 2016)
3.3 Data Collection Method
3.3.1. Data collection instruments
These are the factors finding strategies. There are the tools for data collection. Those are including the questionnaire, Interview, observation and reading. Essentially the researcher must ensure that the instrument chosen is valid and reliable. The validity and reliability of any research project depend to a large extent on the appropriateness of the instruments. Whatever procedure one uses to collect data, it must be critically examined to check the extent to which it is likely to give us the expected results. (Annum, 2017)
The instrument for data collection is a key element of the old-style questionnaires, the researcher wanted to collect correct data from actual readers, which are used to investigate variously focusses of interest among respondents of the study. Selected a questionnaire, it is through the instruments aimed to collect data, relating to the founded factors affecting to the purchase decision of eBooks in Sri Lanka.
For example, the reason to purchase, reading habits, awareness, platform knowledge about eBooks, purchase frequency, and purchases. These data can be possible to measure these occurrences and analyses readers’ decision to purchase eBooks surveys.
In the business consultancy project, questions have developed according to the independent and dependent variables and their elementary components mean indicators founded from related literature reviews. The researcher had referred appropriate literature for knowledge and proper management of other resources available for data collection.
Operationalization has explained the conceptual model of variable, indicators and measurable factors. Design data collection instrument is a questionnaire. This is consisting of sequences of questions and another purpose of gathering information from respondents (readers). The Likert scale was applied to the question answers for quantitative analysis.
The questionnaire is the instrument used for collecting data in this research. The researcher had included a set of standardized questions that explore a specific topic and collect information about an eBook purchase decision. The popular programs that allow creating online surveys, “Survey planet”. This is a great tool to collect data and design and develop user-friendly online research. Using a questionnaire information was collected in a standardized way. Those data usually direct to analyse.
Furthermore, the researcher can be used for thoughtful questions which respondent may feel uncomfortable speaking to an interviewer about. Respondents have time to think about their answers, respondent did not usually require to reply immediately, they can use any kind of internet access device to fill the form.
Appendix A – Operationalization
Appendix B – Research Questionnaire
3.3.2. Data Collection Process
Primary data were gathered through a questionnaire with Neptune readers. In this research study, the questionnaire was emailed to the customers as a document in the Neptune customer database, their responses were very poor. Then questionnaire has plotted to survey the planet and generated a survey link with online access. Then survey link had sent to the above group of respondents were narrowed down to individuals who have the experience of purchasing eBooks online and those who have the plan to purchase eBooks online in the future. Furthermore, this data collection process was easy for customers, when they get this link through email they had the chance to fill it using their nearest device for example, smartphone, tab, notepad or laptop etc… in a flexible way.
Deductive research can be quicker to complete, albeit that time must be devoted to setting up the study prior to data collection and analysis. (Saunders et al, 2007 p.148)
3.5 Role of the researcher
As an employee in books publication and IT industry, the researcher is the one who designs and developed a Neptune online shopping cart and handling all the reader’s online inquiries. Furthermore, design and develop eBooks for selected publications. Compared with the manual books, eBook sales are low in Sri Lanka.
The researcher obtained information primarily through the use of a user-friendly questionnaire which was circulated among readers. Practical consideration will also affect research design, including the role of the researcher. Researcher role here is not to disturb the readers or customers of the survey when they are filling questionnaires. They will convey their independent ideas through the questionnaire. In the quantitative aspect. The role of the researcher to analyze and transform these data into a more comprehensible form. Here designs a quantitative research through reader’s perspective. The use of questionnaires as a research technique.
Validity contains the entire experimental concept and establishes whether the results obtained meet all of the requirements of the research method. For example, here I have been randomization of the sample section and correct care and attention shown in the allocation of controls.
In this research, it has determined the validity by emailing a series of questions, and will often look for the answers in the research of other align with my objectives of the research. These results collected from actual readers/customers of the organization, their answers on observation can be considered as valid answers.
Whoever if someone does not familiar with the questions or content or whatever in technical formulae they have the option to give up this survey. They have a facility to give up the questionnaire without filling incorrect details. Furthermore, they cannot ignore any questions, if they did not know the answer they can give up survey. This survey has design technically to collect accurate and actual data.
Reliability is a key characteristic of research quality. The research implementation is considered to be reliable. The relevant representatives’ sample was taken using the table for determining sample size for finite population out of customers of Neptune Publications (Pvt) Ltd. who has purchased books from us. This can be considered as a reliable research study.
This research has been conducted regarding eBook publication industry in Sri Lanka. In additionally these factors will worth for Sri Lanka Telecom (kiyawamu.lk) Sri Lanka National Library and documentation service board and other eBook selling portals in Sri Lanka. Research questionnaire will address the effective reason for books purchasing audience. Primary data will be confidence level. Once this research is completed the relevant factors would be applied to Neptune publication as well as other publishing companies in Sri Lanka. The more generalizable the research, the greater its usefulness and value. The assumption can have made that this research on perception can be generalized to all of the above-mentioned publication sectors and eBook selling organizations.
3.9 Ethical considerations
Neptune Publications managing director and business development manager have supported to identify what are the relevant areas that should be considered in the research. The marketing department has provided to customer details. Considering the sensitivity of participant, the questionnaire has avoided gathering sensitive and personal information from Neptune customers. The individuals were not being pressured or insisted to provide particular answers. The questionnaire has separately emailed to individuals and the confidential information was assured for the individuals with the answers provided for the research study.
Throughout the research process, the researcher was faced ethical challenges in all stages of the study. The possible ethical challenges were including anonymity, confidentiality, informed consent, researchers’ potential impact on the participant, etc. The researcher has guaranteed the participants the confiding if the information is procured and in the research study.
The research can be considered as an ethical research. The researcher was not asked to fill a questionnaire if someone was not familiar with English and online purchasing, people who are not interested in reading, children, disabled people and victims were not involved in this research to collect data.
Given faculties to give up this research if respondent feels that relevant questions are not familiar with them or if they do not like to select some kind of questions. Did not ask any kind of lengthy sentence question and ask short questions, using the very simple English language.
Respectively the selected set of people was informed about what is the purpose of this research and researcher expectation clearly with the question list. The Given questionnaire contain one by one questions, and they do not want to write more lines and just they can take time to read the question and select the option.