Today reports pointing out those women faces equal

Today women of all ages and
backgrounds are part of every aspect of higher education. They comprise the
majority of undergraduate students and represents significant numbers of post
graduate students, faculty members and educational administrators. Women are
found in every discipline, even though historically reserved for men, such as
engineering and medicine. Women are part of every type of institutions,
including elite public and private colleges and research universities. Women
are better represented among the faculty and leadership of the institutions.
Similarly, women hold full professors positions, associate professors,
assistant professors and also as dean of the institutions. Along with the work
related factors women faculty often remark on the greater responsibilities that
women shoulder for family care, including care of both children and ageing
parents. Many reports pointing out those women faces equal responsibilities of
professional life and family life. Women’s contributions to the family and career
is highly depend on their managing capability of work life balance.

The aspect of work-leisure was invented in the
mid-1800s.  Happiness  can be presumed as a
little separation as possible between the work and play. To the context the
expression “work life balance” was first expressed in 1970’s in UK
and 1980’s in US (Burke peter 1995). In India the concept of work life balance
has first expressed in 1978 (Ragavan 1978). work
life  conflict (Kahn et al., 1964), has
defined as the role conflict as the “simultaneous occurrence of two or more
sets of pressures such that compliance with one would make more difficult
compliance with the other”. Greenhaus and Beutell (1985) based on the work of
Kahn et al. (1964), defined work family conflict as: “A form of inter role
conflict in which the role pressures from work and family domains are mutually
incompatible in some respect. That is, participation in the work – family role
is made more difficult by virtue of participation in the family -work role.”
Conflict between work and family has been found to be bi-directional and should be seen less as competing priorities than as
complementary elements of full life.

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Indian constitution
establishes enactment of laws to protect and promotes the interest of women to
develop them and protect them from discriminations based on gender. For a
longer period of time the teaching profession is the most preferred one by
women in India, especially in semi urban and rural areas the teaching
professions fulfills the employment opportunity of unemployed graduate women.

1.      Review  of Literature

Greenhaus and Beutell (1985) found the differential
the sources of inter role conflict associated with conflicting work and family
roles. There are three sources of conflict namely. Time based conflict, strain
conflict and behaviour based conflict. Time based conflicts occur when various
role pressures complete for an individual time. Strain based conflict occurs
when stress symptoms created by one role make it difficult to comply with
pressures of another role or affect individual performance in a different role.
Behaviour based conflict refers to patterns of behaviour associated with one
role that are incompatible with patterns of behaviour linked with different
role.

Elisa Grant vallone.
Elleo A.Ensher (2001) this study analyse work
and personal life conflict and organisational support. The result of the study
suggest expatriate employee perceive that work life interfere with personal
life more extensively than their personal life interfere with their
professional life. Organisational support has several important effects on
employee. Employees who perceived that their organisation offered a supportive
environment reported lower level of depression, anxiety, concern for their
health and work-personal life conflict.

Dora Scholarios, Abigail
Marks (2004) 
examined the impact of employer flexibility to work life issues and
negative spill over from work to non-work life on the attitudes of software
developers. The result shows that intrusion of work into private life for this
group of workers still has a substantial impact on work related attitudes. Work
life boundary variables affect trust in the organisation which played a
mediation role in these variables relationship to job satisfaction and
organisational commitment. Employees in software industry are relatively
individualistic in orientation, unlikely to show attachment to a single
organisation mutual gain for employee and employer and accommodating approach
to non-work commitments lead to improved organisational attachment. Mutually
leads to more positive perception on work life balance and organisational
commitment.

Fisher (1994) found that academics experienced more
problems in maintaining effective work life balance than other professionals,
as their profession incorporates a wide range of responsibilities with
potentially challenging demands. Most academics surveys supported that their
work produced strain that made it difficult for them to fulfil their family and
social obligations. Work and family role strain reduces worker’s productivity
and increases turnover and absenteeism of the employees. More importantly, the
majority of academics felt dissatisfaction with their institutions and
complained that their institutes do little to help employees to achieve a fair
balance between their work and family lives.

Netemeyer
et al. (1996) contribution is Work Family
Conflict and Family Work Conflict is associated with negative outcomes
including increased physical strain, job dissatisfaction, life dissatisfaction,
burnout, emotional exhaustion, job tension, and intention-to-leave the teaching
profession.

Luce and Murray (1998) found that new requirements at academic
jobs have brought an increased workload. Professional lives characterised by
more and more challenges, frequently changing assignment, work and time
schedules, job insecurity and frequent relocations are some of the factors
which cause work life strain. Most of the faculty new to the campus report that
they feel isolated, and they are often besieged due to unclear expectations and
heavy workloads. 

Anderson D.M, Morgan B.L
and Wilson J.B (2002) University employees’
reports higher dissatisfaction with work family conflicts than corporate
employees, which leads to stress and cause harm to physiological wellbeing of
the employees. This affect the job performance negatively, whenever the
conflicts arises between work life and personal life among university
employees, it also affect the quality of higher education.

Cinamon & Rich (2005) in his study entitled work
family conflict among female teachers finds various
occupational-related demands among teachers have been found to increase
conflict between work and family. Employment hours have been consistently and
positively associated with WFC However, research by found that stressors
specific to teaching (i.e., class size, number of students with special needs,
teachers’ investment in student misbehavior and teachers’ investment in
relationships with student’s parents) explained more variance in WFC than did
generic work stressors such as the number of hours worked. They found that
greater investment in students’ misbehaviour and in students’ parents increased
their WFC.

Gunter
et al. (2005) explained several characteristics
of the teaching profession make conflict between work and family among teachers
an important issue to study. Some unique characteristics about the teaching
profession may contribute to teacher stress. Excessive workload and role overload
is commonly reported as a source of stress among teachers working hour
for female doctors. This study concludes the home domain aspect has influenced
not only female but also the male specialist in the preference of their career
focus.

Wesley and Muthuswamy
(2005) in a study of teachers in an engineering
colleges at Coimbatore in India, found that work to family conflict was more
prevalent than family to work conflict, thus indicating that permeability of
work into family was more than permeability of family into work.

2.     
Objecectives and Limitation of the study

the
main objective of the study is to analyze the work life conflict of women
faculty and to know about the organisational support to overcome from this
issue. The limitation is time and area confined .

3.     
Research Methodology

In this study the descriptive research design is applied.
Both primary and secondary data is used as sources of data for this proposed
study. Questionnaire is an instrument  used to collect the primary data.
Tiruvannamalai,Villupuram  and Vellore
Districts  are the study area and women
faculties of higher educational institutions in the above mentioned districts
are  sample unit of the study. The sample
size was 500 and Stratified Random  sampling
technique is adopted for this study.

5. Data analysis

5.1  Work Life Conflict of Women Faculties

Sl. No.

Particulars

Mean

SD

Status

1.

Work having a positive
impact upon my home life

3.18

0.12

Frequently

2.

Feeling emotionally
drained when I get home from work

4.68

0.10

Always

3.

Feeling that I have
enough time for myself

2.12

0.14

Sometimes

4.

Wishing I had more time
to do things with the family

2.14

0.13

Sometimes

5.

My commitment to my job
inhibiting my leisure activities

4.08

0.16

Often

6.

My personal demands
interfering with my work

4.72

0.11

Always

7.

Family life interfering
with my work

4.66

0.10

Always

8.

Difficulty in coping
with conflicting demands between work life and home life

3.66

0.16

Often

9.

Getting home from work
and feeling unable to switch off and relax

3.20

0.10

Frequently

            The
results show that the women faculties are always experiencing that emotionally
drained when they get home from work, their personal demands interfering with
their work and family life interfering with their work, while they are also
often experiencing that their commitment to their job inhibiting their leisure
activities and difficulty in coping with conflicting demands between work life
and home life. Besides, they are frequently experiencing that work having a
positive impact upon my home life and getting home from work and feeling unable
to switch off and relax and they are also sometimes experiencing that they have
enough time for themselves and wishing they had more time to do things with the
family.

5.2.
Marital status and  Work life Conflict

The F- value of 4.154 is
significant at one per cent level indicating that there is a significant
difference between marital status of the women  faculties in Higher Educational Institutions  and work life conflict. Hence, the alternate hypothesis of there is no
significant difference between marital status  and work life conflict is accepted

5.3. Forms of Work-Family Conflict

Sl.
No.

Forms of Work-Family Conflict

Number
Women Teachers

Percentage

1.

Time
based conflict

149

29.80

2.

Strain
based conflict

242

48.40

3.

Behaviour
based conflict

109

21.80

 

Total

500

100.00

It is apparent that about 48.40 per cent of women faculties
face the strain based conflict followed by time based conflict (29.80 per cent)
and behaviour based conflict (21.80 per cent). It reveals that the most of
women faculties face the strain based conflict.

5.4
.Frequency of Work-Family Conflict

Sl.
No.

Frequency of Work-Family Conflict

Number
Women Teachers

Percentage

1.

Daily

78

15.60

2.

Weekly

219

43.80

3.

Monthly

165

33.00

4.

Yearly

38

7.60

 

Total

500

100.00

 
          The
results show that about 43.80 per cent of women faculties experience the work
life conflict weekly followed by monthly (33.00 per cent), daily (15.60 per
cent) and yearly (7.60 per cent). It is inferred that the majority of women faculties
experience the work life conflict weekly.

5.5.
Organizational
Support for Work Life Conflict

Sl.
No.

Particulars

Mean

SD

Status

1.

I
am encouraged to make my own decisions

2.10

0.14

Disagree

2.

My
management expects far too much from me

4.64

0.12

Strongly Agree

3.

I
can talk to my colleagues about my personal problems

3.04

0.10

Moderately Agree

4.

I
feel guilty if I miss an important family event due to pressure of work

4.12

0.12

Agree

5.

My
colleagues are very understanding if someone has to leave early or arrive
late due to a non-work emergency

4.10

0.14

Agree

6.

My
management makes an active effort to help me when there is conflict between
work and other commitments

4.70

0.12

Strongly Agree

7.

I
really feel that the college respects desire to balance work and non-work
demands

3.16

0.15

Moderately Agree

8.

I
feel guilty when I have taken time off, even when I have been ill

2.20

0.12

Disagree

9.

My
management is very understanding if someone has to leave early or arrive late
due to a non-work emergency

3.10

0.16

Moderately Agree

10.

My
management supports policies that help staff with families

3.14

0.14

Moderately Agree

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