Today women of all ages andbackgrounds are part of every aspect of higher education. They comprise themajority of undergraduate students and represents significant numbers of postgraduate students, faculty members and educational administrators. Women arefound in every discipline, even though historically reserved for men, such asengineering and medicine. Women are part of every type of institutions,including elite public and private colleges and research universities.
Womenare better represented among the faculty and leadership of the institutions.Similarly, women hold full professors positions, associate professors,assistant professors and also as dean of the institutions. Along with the workrelated factors women faculty often remark on the greater responsibilities thatwomen shoulder for family care, including care of both children and ageingparents. Many reports pointing out those women faces equal responsibilities ofprofessional life and family life. Women’s contributions to the family and careeris highly depend on their managing capability of work life balance.The aspect of work-leisure was invented in themid-1800s. Happiness can be presumed as alittle separation as possible between the work and play.
To the context theexpression “work life balance” was first expressed in 1970’s in UKand 1980’s in US (Burke peter 1995). In India the concept of work life balancehas first expressed in 1978 (Ragavan 1978). worklife conflict (Kahn et al., 1964), hasdefined as the role conflict as the “simultaneous occurrence of two or moresets of pressures such that compliance with one would make more difficultcompliance with the other”. Greenhaus and Beutell (1985) based on the work ofKahn et al. (1964), defined work family conflict as: “A form of inter roleconflict in which the role pressures from work and family domains are mutuallyincompatible in some respect.
That is, participation in the work – family roleis made more difficult by virtue of participation in the family -work role.”Conflict between work and family has been found to be bi-directional and should be seen less as competing priorities than ascomplementary elements of full life. Indian constitutionestablishes enactment of laws to protect and promotes the interest of women todevelop them and protect them from discriminations based on gender. For alonger period of time the teaching profession is the most preferred one bywomen in India, especially in semi urban and rural areas the teachingprofessions fulfills the employment opportunity of unemployed graduate women. 1. Review of LiteratureGreenhaus and Beutell (1985) found the differentialthe sources of inter role conflict associated with conflicting work and familyroles.
There are three sources of conflict namely. Time based conflict, strainconflict and behaviour based conflict. Time based conflicts occur when variousrole pressures complete for an individual time.
Strain based conflict occurswhen stress symptoms created by one role make it difficult to comply withpressures of another role or affect individual performance in a different role.Behaviour based conflict refers to patterns of behaviour associated with onerole that are incompatible with patterns of behaviour linked with differentrole.Elisa Grant vallone.Elleo A.Ensher (2001) this study analyse workand personal life conflict and organisational support. The result of the studysuggest expatriate employee perceive that work life interfere with personallife more extensively than their personal life interfere with theirprofessional life. Organisational support has several important effects onemployee. Employees who perceived that their organisation offered a supportiveenvironment reported lower level of depression, anxiety, concern for theirhealth and work-personal life conflict.
Dora Scholarios, AbigailMarks (2004) examined the impact of employer flexibility to work life issues andnegative spill over from work to non-work life on the attitudes of softwaredevelopers. The result shows that intrusion of work into private life for thisgroup of workers still has a substantial impact on work related attitudes. Worklife boundary variables affect trust in the organisation which played amediation role in these variables relationship to job satisfaction andorganisational commitment. Employees in software industry are relativelyindividualistic in orientation, unlikely to show attachment to a singleorganisation mutual gain for employee and employer and accommodating approachto non-work commitments lead to improved organisational attachment.
Mutuallyleads to more positive perception on work life balance and organisationalcommitment.Fisher (1994) found that academics experienced moreproblems in maintaining effective work life balance than other professionals,as their profession incorporates a wide range of responsibilities withpotentially challenging demands. Most academics surveys supported that theirwork produced strain that made it difficult for them to fulfil their family andsocial obligations. Work and family role strain reduces worker’s productivityand increases turnover and absenteeism of the employees. More importantly, themajority of academics felt dissatisfaction with their institutions andcomplained that their institutes do little to help employees to achieve a fairbalance between their work and family lives.
Netemeyeret al. (1996) contribution is Work FamilyConflict and Family Work Conflict is associated with negative outcomesincluding increased physical strain, job dissatisfaction, life dissatisfaction,burnout, emotional exhaustion, job tension, and intention-to-leave the teachingprofession.Luce and Murray (1998) found that new requirements at academicjobs have brought an increased workload. Professional lives characterised bymore and more challenges, frequently changing assignment, work and timeschedules, job insecurity and frequent relocations are some of the factorswhich cause work life strain. Most of the faculty new to the campus report thatthey feel isolated, and they are often besieged due to unclear expectations andheavy workloads. Anderson D.
M, Morgan B.Land Wilson J.B (2002) University employees’reports higher dissatisfaction with work family conflicts than corporateemployees, which leads to stress and cause harm to physiological wellbeing ofthe employees. This affect the job performance negatively, whenever theconflicts arises between work life and personal life among universityemployees, it also affect the quality of higher education.
Cinamon & Rich (2005) in his study entitled workfamily conflict among female teachers finds variousoccupational-related demands among teachers have been found to increaseconflict between work and family. Employment hours have been consistently andpositively associated with WFC However, research by found that stressorsspecific to teaching (i.e., class size, number of students with special needs,teachers’ investment in student misbehavior and teachers’ investment inrelationships with student’s parents) explained more variance in WFC than didgeneric work stressors such as the number of hours worked. They found thatgreater investment in students’ misbehaviour and in students’ parents increasedtheir WFC.Gunteret al. (2005) explained several characteristicsof the teaching profession make conflict between work and family among teachersan important issue to study.
Some unique characteristics about the teachingprofession may contribute to teacher stress. Excessive workload and role overloadis commonly reported as a source of stress among teachers working hourfor female doctors. This study concludes the home domain aspect has influencednot only female but also the male specialist in the preference of their careerfocus.Wesley and Muthuswamy(2005) in a study of teachers in an engineeringcolleges at Coimbatore in India, found that work to family conflict was moreprevalent than family to work conflict, thus indicating that permeability ofwork into family was more than permeability of family into work.
2. Objecectives and Limitation of the studythemain objective of the study is to analyze the work life conflict of womenfaculty and to know about the organisational support to overcome from thisissue. The limitation is time and area confined .
3. Research MethodologyIn this study the descriptive research design is applied.Both primary and secondary data is used as sources of data for this proposedstudy. Questionnaire is an instrument used to collect the primary data.Tiruvannamalai,Villupuram and VelloreDistricts are the study area and womenfaculties of higher educational institutions in the above mentioned districtsare sample unit of the study. The samplesize was 500 and Stratified Random samplingtechnique is adopted for this study.5. Data analysis5.
1 Work Life Conflict of Women Faculties Sl. No. Particulars Mean SD Status 1. Work having a positive impact upon my home life 3.
18 0.12 Frequently 2. Feeling emotionally drained when I get home from work 4.68 0.10 Always 3. Feeling that I have enough time for myself 2.12 0.14 Sometimes 4.
Wishing I had more time to do things with the family 2.14 0.13 Sometimes 5. My commitment to my job inhibiting my leisure activities 4.08 0.16 Often 6.
My personal demands interfering with my work 4.72 0.11 Always 7. Family life interfering with my work 4.66 0.
10 Always 8. Difficulty in coping with conflicting demands between work life and home life 3.66 0.16 Often 9. Getting home from work and feeling unable to switch off and relax 3.20 0.10 Frequently Theresults show that the women faculties are always experiencing that emotionallydrained when they get home from work, their personal demands interfering withtheir work and family life interfering with their work, while they are alsooften experiencing that their commitment to their job inhibiting their leisureactivities and difficulty in coping with conflicting demands between work lifeand home life. Besides, they are frequently experiencing that work having apositive impact upon my home life and getting home from work and feeling unableto switch off and relax and they are also sometimes experiencing that they haveenough time for themselves and wishing they had more time to do things with thefamily.
5.2.Marital status and Work life Conflict The F- value of 4.154 issignificant at one per cent level indicating that there is a significantdifference between marital status of the women faculties in Higher Educational Institutions and work life conflict. Hence, the alternate hypothesis of there is nosignificant difference between marital status and work life conflict is accepted5.3. Forms of Work-Family Conflict Sl. No.
Forms of Work-Family Conflict Number Women Teachers Percentage 1. Time based conflict 149 29.80 2. Strain based conflict 242 48.40 3.
Behaviour based conflict 109 21.80 Total 500 100.00 It is apparent that about 48.40 per cent of women facultiesface the strain based conflict followed by time based conflict (29.80 per cent)and behaviour based conflict (21.80 per cent). It reveals that the most ofwomen faculties face the strain based conflict.5.
4.Frequency of Work-Family Conflict Sl. No.
Frequency of Work-Family Conflict Number Women Teachers Percentage 1. Daily 78 15.60 2. Weekly 219 43.80 3. Monthly 165 33.
00 4. Yearly 38 7.60 Total 500 100.
00 Theresults show that about 43.80 per cent of women faculties experience the worklife conflict weekly followed by monthly (33.00 per cent), daily (15.60 percent) and yearly (7.
60 per cent). It is inferred that the majority of women facultiesexperience the work life conflict weekly. 5.
5.OrganizationalSupport for Work Life Conflict Sl. No. Particulars Mean SD Status 1. I am encouraged to make my own decisions 2.10 0.14 Disagree 2.
My management expects far too much from me 4.64 0.12 Strongly Agree 3. I can talk to my colleagues about my personal problems 3.04 0.10 Moderately Agree 4.
I feel guilty if I miss an important family event due to pressure of work 4.12 0.12 Agree 5. My colleagues are very understanding if someone has to leave early or arrive late due to a non-work emergency 4.10 0.14 Agree 6. My management makes an active effort to help me when there is conflict between work and other commitments 4.
70 0.12 Strongly Agree 7. I really feel that the college respects desire to balance work and non-work demands 3.16 0.15 Moderately Agree 8. I feel guilty when I have taken time off, even when I have been ill 2.
20 0.12 Disagree 9. My management is very understanding if someone has to leave early or arrive late due to a non-work emergency 3.10 0.
16 Moderately Agree 10. My management supports policies that help staff with families 3.14 0.14 Moderately Agree