Today’s Production systems are highly inspired by theToyota Production systems, lean philosophies and study of benchmark from othercompanies termed as XPS.
Scientific management theory is used by all productionsystem. Therefore, it’s very hard to assert for basics rarity and inimitabilityamong them. In daily run, the companies enjoy competitive advantage dueresource or time advantage compared with competitors. None of the productionsystems are not exactly copied from the other productions systems they havesimilarities to each other. Companies develop unique principles in theirproduction environment. The production principles today resemble thephilosophies of the TPS and lean manufacturing principles. The philosophiestoday are compared with overall principles from the TPS and Lean should beconsidered more.
If considered principles of the top companies they have 50-90%of their own principles. The strategic decisions are taken from lean and continuousimprovement is done by own. The results from the paper by (TorbjørnH. Netland, 2012) fourteen new principles appeared more than twice includeworkplace management (fifteen occurrences), design manufacturing (three),innovation (3), organizational design (4) and product development (3). Only fewcompanies have strong significance among thirty companies. The workplacemanagement principles are main principle in half of them which includes 5swhich is known as lean principles and has important role.
Thenext principle which looks similar in today’s philosophies is Organizationaldesign by the most of the companies which are flow oriented organizations withclear responsibilities and roles that is lean organization. The otherprinciples related are design for manufacturing; product development andinnovation are inspired from lean literature. Since none of them referred as alean process in developed frame of reference. Similarly, in the case of XPS have their new principles in addition.Today,all the production systems contain their own mutations of the TPS and leanphilosophies. But, Just-in-time and jidoka (automation) are not the part theirproduction systems. The only principles used are leadership, employmentinvolvement and teamwork occurrence in medium in analysis. The aerospace andheavy vehicle manufacturers tend to work on reduction of batch size principle,which has relatively low volumes and high customization.
The process industrieshas concentration on zero tact time principles and put more emphasis onproduction levelling principles called as heijunka than having their ownproduction system. This type of industry operates with long and variable cycletimes. The automotive manufacturers have has high degree of stressful andassembly joints so they focus on teamwork. The ‘design of manufacturing’principle is more considered by equipment manufacturers due to high productionlifecycles and technical complexity.
Importanceof leadership and change management when implementing a production philosophyThis section explains the importance of leadership andmanagement skills when changing new production philosophies. In processindustry the change is vary by frequency, scope, depth, marketing dynamics andrelated to production by change in production process and management (Keren etal., 2002 ).From the book of Lean Tool Box, the question to think about is ‘Howchange can be implemented with employs and machines?’ (John Bicheno, 2009). Itis easy to change layouts, moving position of machines and re-designing thematerial flows.
Changing the human mentality is far. Manufacturing and serviceoperations are like Scio-technical systems, to get desired efficiency humansand machines have to work with harmony. If change does not match the level ofperformance then system will fail. Any change can cause problem to human inother form, employs that do not collaborate with new methods will be thebottlenecks. Executing change means making change in mental models of thepeople known as social system.
It is very important to notice that change inany of the above process can change the work space and methods of theindividual and not managing this change may like to oppose and in some casecollapse the changes. Peter Senge, The fifth Discipline has 10 laws gives thegreat knowledge, how to avoid implementation issues. To change the behaviour ofthe people performance measures are taken to reward incentives for the sake ofpromotion. People will always try to work hard for the performance in ordermake bonus. To see the organisation in future from current state action plan shouldbe made motivate employs towards change.From the literature, the implementation of newphilosophies such as lean manufacturing and similar innovative principles isnot always successful. The explanation provided is that replacing traditionalsystem in to other system may frustrate the process of transformation.
In thispaper author argues that lean principles brings new control, which alters viewsof the people (Santra, 2015). To resolve these tensions the system should berealise full benefits of the change. One of the papers from literature talks about humanbehaviour with regards to the transformation of traditional principles to leanphilosophy implementation. Chief-management leadership and intrinsic benefitsanalyses to change will play important role in the transformation to a lean. Itis a great show up for the acceptance when group leaders participating inimplementing the lean principles. Group leaders can express acceptance ofchange enthusiastically by participating in change.
By taking initiative rolein learning new philosophies and applying them in workplace can influenceothers. Teamwork is the main criteria toachieve common goal towards lean objectives without arguing. For instance,synergistic multi person work cell, where the job and responsibilities aredefined, that work in coordination are likely to achieve quality production anddelivery (R.
S.Keyser, 2016). In practical world it creates problem forengineering managers in quality, productivity, mental ability and ultimatelyprofitability which falls on organisation’s ability to survive. Activeinvolvement of senior and mid management should motivate organizational changelike catalyst. Leaders must provide required commitment and blueprint for aprosperous transition to change.