Today’s and lean manufacturing principles. The philosophies today

Today’s Production systems are highly inspired by the
Toyota Production systems, lean philosophies and study of benchmark from other
companies termed as XPS. Scientific management theory is used by all production
system. Therefore, it’s very hard to assert for basics rarity and inimitability
among them. In daily run, the companies enjoy competitive advantage due
resource or time advantage compared with competitors. None of the production
systems are not exactly copied from the other productions systems they have
similarities to each other. Companies develop unique principles in their
production environment.

The production principles today resemble the
philosophies of the TPS and lean manufacturing principles. The philosophies
today are compared with overall principles from the TPS and Lean should be
considered more. If considered principles of the top companies they have 50-90%
of their own principles. The strategic decisions are taken from lean and continuous
improvement is done by own. The results from the paper by (Torbjørn
H. Netland, 2012) fourteen new principles appeared more than twice include
workplace management (fifteen occurrences), design manufacturing (three),
innovation (3), organizational design (4) and product development (3). Only few
companies have strong significance among thirty companies. The workplace
management principles are main principle in half of them which includes 5s
which is known as lean principles and has important role.

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next principle which looks similar in today’s philosophies is Organizational
design by the most of the companies which are flow oriented organizations with
clear responsibilities and roles that is lean organization. The other
principles related are design for manufacturing; product development and
innovation are inspired from lean literature. Since none of them referred as a
lean process in developed frame of reference. Similarly, in the case of XPS   have their new principles in addition.

all the production systems contain their own mutations of the TPS and lean
philosophies. But, Just-in-time and jidoka (automation) are not the part their
production systems. The only principles used are leadership, employment
involvement and teamwork occurrence in medium in analysis. The aerospace and
heavy vehicle manufacturers tend to work on reduction of batch size principle,
which has relatively low volumes and high customization. The process industries
has concentration on zero tact time principles and put more emphasis on
production levelling principles called as heijunka than having their own
production system. This type of industry operates with long and variable cycle
times. The automotive manufacturers have has high degree of stressful and
assembly joints so they focus on teamwork. The ‘design of manufacturing’
principle is more considered by equipment manufacturers due to high production
lifecycles and technical complexity.

of leadership and change management when implementing a production philosophy

This section explains the importance of leadership and
management skills when changing new production philosophies. In process
industry the change is vary by frequency, scope, depth, marketing dynamics and
related to production by change in production process and management (Keren et
al., 2002 ).From the book of Lean Tool Box, the question to think about is ‘How
change can be implemented with employs and machines?’ (John Bicheno, 2009). It
is easy to change layouts, moving position of machines and re-designing the
material flows. Changing the human mentality is far. Manufacturing and service
operations are like Scio-technical systems, to get desired efficiency humans
and machines have to work with harmony. If change does not match the level of
performance then system will fail. Any change can cause problem to human in
other form, employs that do not collaborate with new methods will be the
bottlenecks. Executing change means making change in mental models of the
people known as social system. It is very important to notice that change in
any of the above process can change the work space and methods of the
individual and not managing this change may like to oppose and in some case
collapse the changes. Peter Senge, The fifth Discipline has 10 laws gives the
great knowledge, how to avoid implementation issues. To change the behaviour of
the people performance measures are taken to reward incentives for the sake of
promotion. People will always try to work hard for the performance in order
make bonus. To see the organisation in future from current state action plan should
be made motivate employs towards change.

From the literature, the implementation of new
philosophies such as lean manufacturing and similar innovative principles is
not always successful. The explanation provided is that replacing traditional
system in to other system may frustrate the process of transformation. In this
paper author argues that lean principles brings new control, which alters views
of the people (Santra, 2015). To resolve these tensions the system should be
realise full benefits of the change.

One of the papers from literature talks about human
behaviour with regards to the transformation of traditional principles to lean
philosophy implementation. Chief-management leadership and intrinsic benefits
analyses to change will play important role in the transformation to a lean. It
is a great show up for the acceptance when group leaders participating in
implementing the lean principles. Group leaders can express acceptance of
change enthusiastically by participating in change. By taking initiative role
in learning new philosophies and applying them in workplace can influence
others.  Teamwork is the main criteria to
achieve common goal towards lean objectives without arguing. For instance,
synergistic multi person work cell, where the job and responsibilities are
defined, that work in coordination are likely to achieve quality production and
delivery (R.S.Keyser, 2016). In practical world it creates problem for
engineering managers in quality, productivity, mental ability and ultimately
profitability which falls on organisation’s ability to survive. Active
involvement of senior and mid management should motivate organizational change
like catalyst. Leaders must provide required commitment and blueprint for a
prosperous transition to change.  



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