Tuberculosis(TB) is still the major cause of concern among the infectious diseases. Thebacterium responsible for causing TB is Mycobacteriumtuberculosis (M. tb). The disease transmits by the respiratory route in theform of aerosol droplets containing the pathogen released by the infectedpatients while coughing or sneezing. Pathogen main target is the lung but italso has the ability to affect the various other parts of body, which mayinclude bones, brain, stomach, intestine and various other organs of the body.
World’sone-third population is infected with tuberculosis. According to the WHO (Worldhealth organization) report 2015, 1.8 million people died from the disease outof the total 10.4 million who got ill with this malady. Nearly 10% of thechildren got affected with this disease in the year 2015. Co-infection of TB inHIV (Human immunodeficiency virus)-positive patients is the prime cause ofdeath among these individuals. In the year 2015, 35% of the deaths among theHIV positive people were due to TB. To reach the goal of the ‘End TB strategy’,aiming to reduce TB deaths by 90% and incidence by 80% by 2030 we need acomprehensive approach for the treatment, diagnosis and vaccination of thedisease.
An estimate by WHO report 2017 claimed that South-East Asia regionaccounts for nearly 45.6% of the total TB incidence. Members of SEAR namely theDemocratic People?s Republic Korea, Indonesia, Myanmar, Bangladesh, India andThailand are among the global list of 30 high-TB-burden countries. One third ofthe world burden is shared by both India (23%) and Indonesia (10%). India ranksnumber six in terms of incidence rate and mortality rate.
Despite severaladvances being made to eliminate TB, this disease is still creating havocbecause of an upsurge in the cases of extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB)and Multi drug-resistant TB (MDR-TB). Out of the total cases of MDR-TB only 52%patients were treated successfully worldwide. 49% of MDR-TB cases from SEARwere cured. In the year 2015, Drug resistant TB claimed 250000 lives globally.In 2015 worldwide cases of MDR-TB represented only 37% of the estimated 340000MDR/RR-TB cases among pulmonary TB patients.
200000 cases of MDR/RR-TB(Rifampicin resistant) were reported from SAE region out of which alone Indiahad 130000 incidence of MDR/RR-TB. 11% of all new TB cases globally wereaccounted by HIV positive people in 2015 while 4.7% (227000) cases werereported from SAE region. 74000 people died from HIV associated TB from the SAEregion in the year 2015