Unit federal prosecutors investigating the use of

Unit 1 2018: School Assessed Coursework (SAC) number 3
Evaluate the ethical and performance implications of the use of practices and substances that enhance human movement.

Written assignment
This task will be marked out of 28
This SAC will be handed in electronically on Compass in assignment form. All questions must be attempted.

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Students are to choose an athlete or sporting team who was/were involved in using performance enhancing drugs that are related to the musculoskeletal system and answer the following questions: (some examples could be Marion Jones, Ben Johnson, Barry Bonds, EFC, East Germany, Sandor Earl, Justin Gatlin)
Question 1: Give some details into the background of the athlete such as: What sport did they compete in? What achievements did they attain? (6 marks)
Marion jones is an American track and field world champion athlete, as well as a former professional basketball player. She won three gold medals and two bronze medals at the  HYPERLINK "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2000_Summer_Olympics"2000 Summer Olympics in  HYPERLINK "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sydney,_Australia"Sydney, Australia for 100 m, 200 m, 4x100m and long jump. 7 years later, Jones was stripped of her titles after admitting to  HYPERLINK "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anabolic_steroid"steroid use in her events. She claimed she wasn’t aware it was a banned substance and her coach Trevor Graham gave her the drug telling her it was a nutritional supplement.

Question 2: What performance enhancing drug/s were they using? How did they get caught? What penalty did they serve? (4 marks)
Jones sent a letter to admit to taking THG (Tetrahydrogestrinone), a powerful anabolic steroid. She claims in the letter that she was unaware at the time that the drug was a banned substance. She said her former coach Trevor Graham gave her the drug, telling her it was flaxseed oil, a legal nutritional supplement. Marion Jones was sentenced to 6 months in a federal court, six months in prison and two years of probation and community service for lying to federal prosecutors investigating the use of performance enhancing substances.

Question 3: What were the performance enhancing effects of the drug/s that they were taking? (6 marks)
Tetrahydrogestrinone – the name of the anabolic steroids which is taken to increase lean muscle mass and strength, and can make you feel hot, relaxed, stay calm and focused.

Increased protein synthesis — the process by which individual amino acids are connected to each other in a specific order dictated by the nucleotide sequence in DNA, which also involves the processes of transcription and translation
Reduction in fatigue – Fatigue is a feeling of constant tiredness or weakness and can be physical, mental or a combination of both. Fatigue can cause a vast range of other physical, mental and emotional symptoms including:
chronic tiredness or sleepiness
sore or aching muscles
muscle weakness
slowed reflexes and responses
impaired decision-making and judgement
moodiness, such as irritability
Faster rate of recovery-After you workout, your body repairs or replaces damaged muscle fibres through a cellular process where it fuses muscle fibres together to form new muscle protein strands or myofibrils. These repaired myofibrils increase in thickness and number to create muscle growth. Muscle growth occurs whenever the rate of muscle protein synthesis is greater than the rate of muscle protein breakdown. 
Increased aggression – In sport, aggression is a characteristic that can have many negative as well as positive effects on performance. Aggression is defined as a negative psychological characteristic, however some sport psychologists agree that aggression can improve performance. This is called an assertive behaviour where a player will play within the rules of the sport at a very high intensity, but will have no intention to harm an opponent.

Question 4: Discuss the socio-cultural factors that could influence an athlete’s decision to take performance enhancing drugs. (4 marks)
Factors that influence athletes to take drugs could be the pressure of having a following and having to perform their best without disappointment. A persons personality can lead to drug intake through the influence of peers, if they are with friends and make an impulse decision without thinking of the consequences it could affect an athletes sports career. Mental illness can cause drug abuse and addiction to feel a sense of comfort when performing/competing.

Question 5: Outline some of the potential harms that are associated with the use of the performance enhancing drug. (4 marks)
Potential harms of steroids can include long term and short term side effects. Steroids may cause high blood pressure, increased cholesterol levels, and elevated blood sugars, all of which are risk factors for heart attack and stroke. Initial signs that anabolic steroids are being abused may include rapid weight gain and unusual mood swings. Emotions may include increased aggressiveness and acne is a common visual side effect. The side effects of steroids can also be explained by the excess  HYPERLINK "https://www.emedicinehealth.com/low_testosterone_quiz_iq/quiz.htm"androgen and anabolic drug levels present in the body. The use of steroids suppresses the naturally occurring testosterone in the body and, in males, may lead to a decrease in testicle size, decreased sperm production,  HYPERLINK "https://www.emedicinehealth.com/infertility/article_em.htm"infertility, and baldness. As well, the excess steroid can be converted to oestrogen and may lead to enlarged breasts (known as gynaecomastia). In females, the excess testosterone production may lead to a deeper voice, changes in the  HYPERLINK "https://www.emedicinehealth.com/vaginal_bleeding/article_em.htm"menstrual cycle and increased hair production.

Question 6: Outline some legal methods that could have been used that would have given a similar effect. (4 marks)
Instead of using illegal drug enhancement to feel calm and ‘bulk’ up an athlete could endure in listening to music, read a book, practice yoga, take up running or go to the gym and lift weights to take the stress off their body and see the physical results with hard work they put in themselves without any artificial enhancements.

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