UNIVERSITY Strategy and Structure LECTURER: Dr. Eketu Abstract


Eketu      AbstractThis study looks into change resistance, concentrating on the management ofchange resistance in strategy implementation. It offers an in?depth education of resistance to change. Through a more examinedtechnique, this research looks into approaches in managing resistance to changeand connecting resistance to the advantage of the organization.

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This paper viaempirical research displays systematically the consequence of change resistancein strategy execution and how managers can use and work through changeresistance. It also expresses which resistance vary most, range of change and contributingclues around where establishments ought to pay distinctive consideration when introducinga change procedure.               IntroductionAfter strategies havebeen agreed on, the following process is the implementation of the agreedstrategy. Strategy implementation is an essential and vital portion of anorganization. It is the procedure of apportioningresources to support the approved and preferred approaches. This processincludes the diverse management activities that are indispensable in puttingstrategy in motion, begin certain tactical controls that supervise growth, and ultimatelyachieve organizational goals.

While execution of strategies are necessary in anorganization, resistance to change of such strategies is unavoidable. There is certainto be a reaction to the execution of said strategies. The goal of this paper isto illustrate how a good and pleasing management of change resistance would reassureand rise quality and growth in strategy Implementation. LiteratureReview(Lawrence, 1954; Maurer,1996; Strebel, 1994; Waddell and Sohal, 1998, among others) emphasize that thebasis for the lack of success of many change initiatives can be found inresistance to change. (Beer and Eisenstat, 1996; Goldstein, 1988; Lawrence,1954; Piderit, 2000; Waddell and Sohal, 1998) looks at Resistance as a sourceof information, being useful in learning how to develop a more successfulchange process.

The general aim oforganizational change is an adaptation to the environment (Barr, Stimpert andHuff, 1992; Child and Smith, 1987; Leana and Barry, 2000) or an development inperformance (Boeker, 1997; Keck and Tushman, 1993).Typeof changesThe first type of changesare small changes that modify certain minor parts, looking for an enhancementin the current situation, but keeping the general working structure (Blumenthaland Haspeslagh, 1994; Goodstein and Burke, 1991; Greiner, 1972; Levy, 1986;Mezias and Glynn, 1993; Nadler and Tushman, 1989; 1990). The second type ofchanges are strategic, transformational, and innovatory or second order ones.They are radical conversions, where the organization totally changes its necessarystructure (Blumenthal and Haspeslagh, 1994; Ghoshal and Bartlett, 1996;Goodstein and Burke, 1991; Marshak, 1993; Nadler and Tushman, 1989, 1990),looking largely for a new competitive benefit (Hutt, Walker and Frankwick, 1995)and affecting the basic competences of the organization (Ruiz and Lorenzo,1999). ConceptualReview Dependent variable: Change resistance Independent variable: Strategy  Implementation EmpiricalReviewBehavior Behavioral approach concentrateson individual attitudes in clarifying the nature of change. This approachconceives the change in organizations as highly dependent on members oforganizations and their behaviors.

As we will discuss in details in thefollowing part, behavioral approach focuses on change in the basis ofindividual behaviors and their effects on other individuals’ behaviors in orderto reach intended results. The failure or success of reaching intended resultsshould be analyzed in the behaviors of individuals and the conditions (Cameron& Green, 2004). The nature of change in the organizations can be understoodby analyzing the behaviors of people and their effects. According to behavioralapproach, by creating suitable environment and functional interventionstrategies; change can be managed and organizational development might beachieved. The main concern of change agent should be behaviors, perceptions andattitudes of people in the process of change implementation and managers shouldconcentrate on improving communication, group behaviors, organizationalculture, organizational learning and motivation in workplace in order toachieve intended results and successful changes (Christensen, Marx , 2006). CHANGE PROCESS (Newstrom & Davis, 1997)Diagnosisof drivers of change and resistance to change: Diagnosis, whichis the first step of change process, helps us to understand external andinternal drivers which force organizations to change. Possible resistancesources should also be taken into consideration while diagnosing.

Selectingchange agents: In accordance with the type of change that has beennecessary, appropriate change agentsshould be selected in order to implement change programs. Change agents can beinternal, who are members of the organization; or external, who can be hiredasconsultants. At the same time, change agents should also be compatible tomanage resistance. Strategybuilding: In this step, by considering the needs for change, aproper plan for change, which will transform organization from its existingsituation to a desired position, is expected to be developed Strategyimplementation: Implementation of change strategiesnecessitates managerial and leadership skills.

Time, cost, responsibility andethical issues should be taken into consideration while implementing change programs.Evaluation:Overall progress and effectiveness of implementation should be evaluated inorder to determine success of change in reaching targeted goals. The importantpoint is not to ignore that change is an ongoing process in the shape of a circle;and therefore strategies should be adaptable enough to upcoming change forcesand resistance factors that might arise from employees.

InstitutionalizeChange:The change process and management are expected to be transferred to thelong-term improvements by developing and introducing functional mechanisms likelearning organizations. The important point that should be mentioned here isthat change is the ongoing process, which is not directional. The processshould be thought as a circular that the outputs of processes can be the inputsor sources of change processes. In other words, the process can be consideredas a flow action in which every step is supported by the previous one.  StructureThe other view has comefrom the structural approach and it has described the nature of change asstructure? and focuses on redesigning and restructuring organizations.Consultants or change agents should provide functioning mechanisms (structure)to managers in order to achieve successful change and decrease the anxiety inorganization (Hirschhorn & Barnett 1993). Structures have been emerged fromthe interactions of groups of people that work and aim to the common purposes(Seel, 2002). It is also possible that structures can be created from outsideby experts, namely external consultants.

Level of Change As human beings, we havelived in social organism where we have confronted to the different level ofchange in everyday life. Individuals could be assumed as the core part ofchange; that is, change in individual is the starting point of the change of allsystems. But individuals are not isolated from the environment. They are alsopart of different groups at different levels.

There have been intense webs ofcommunications between individuals and groups. (Cameron & Green, 2004).Therefore, in this part, we will analyze three different levels of change,which will give us a comprehensive understanding about how change should bemanaged: Individuallevel of change Teamlevel of change Organizationallevel of change  Emphasis is being put onthe level analysis compared to the other dimensions of change, because itcontains important elements which will prepare the ground for the discussion ofresistance management. We believe that for successful change implementation andresistance management, key elements of these three levels needs to beunderstood by manager/change initiators.  Individual Change Even change has beencoming from the external world, the perception and reactions toward changearises internally, and therefore this puts to individual to a central positionin explaining the level of change. The external world, which individual are apart of it, has not been stable. It has been dynamic and subject to constantchanges.

The individuals, as a part of the environment, also encounter thesechanges and need to adopt themselves. From this point, individuals constitutethe one of the most important levels which the idea if change needs to beanalyzed and understood. We will revisit for different perspectives offered byCameron and Green (2004) to explain individual level change.  Behavioralapproach CognitiveApproach PsychodynamicApproach HumanisticPsychological Approach  These four approaches arenot contradictory to each other; instead, they function as complementary foreach other, in terms of explaining the different dimensions of individual levelchange.

  Behavioral Approach: Behavioral approachfocuses on change by looking at individual behaviors when they are striving toreach their goals and their effects on other individuals’ behaviors. Thefailure or success of reaching intended results can be analyzed in thebehaviors of individuals and the conditions that shape them (Cameron and Green,2004). This issue has been initially discussed by psychologist like Pavlov(1928) and Skinner (1953) in order to understand the relation between behaviorsand conditions and the effects of rewards and punishment systems to thebehaviors of individuals. Pavlov (1928) mainly analyzed the behavior itselfunder classical conditioning; however Skinner (1953) has furthered the issue toanalyze the possible effects of the behaviors. He proposed that there could bealso the learning behavior with the positive and negative effects of rewardsand punishments. According to him, there are four possible situations thatmight arise after using rewards and punishment systems



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