Wired an implantable controller connected to the implantable

Wired connection of implantable devices:

A circulatory assist system is
disclosed, the system including an implantable electrical device having an
electric motor, an implantable controller connected to the implantable
electrical device, and an implantable power source connected to the controller
for supplying power to the controller.

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Advantages:

The controller is attachable to a
first side of a percutaneous connector. A second side of the percutaneous
connector, opposite to the first side, allows external connectivity to the
mentioned controller.

Disadvantages:

–  wires can break, so the patients must have
some sort of surgery, which makes it harder, more expensive, and less feasible.

 – wires may become infected or introduce noise
in the recording through movement artifacts or by antenna effects.

 -Complications with wires are frequently
reported with deep brain stimulation devices and with pacemakers and
implantable cardioverter-defibrillators.

 

Wireless medical telemetry:

Wireless medical telemetry is generally used to record
the physiological information of the patient (e.g., cardiac signals) over a
distance through radio-frequency communication between a transmitter and a
central monitoring station.

Other wireless communication systems
have been investigated to connect with implants such as ultrasound and optics.

Advantages:

Allow the patient to move to the bed
control system with the eavesdropper with a hard-wired connection.

Disadvantages:


However, wireless RF telemetry requires significant power.


It suffers from poor transmission through biological tissue.

-RF
telemetry also needs a relatively large antenna, which limits how small the
implantable devices can be and prevents implantation in organs such as the
brain, heart and spinal cord without causing significant damage.

-These
methods also have low-efficiency transmission through the body and would be
difficult to miniaturize. it is hard to find an appropriate commercial battery.
Up to now, finding the battery has been a bottleneck in arterial blood pressure
measurement system development. For example, Frounhofer’s blood pressure
measurement system is assembled with an inner-arterial pressure sensor and an
outer-arterial battery.

Implant-to-surface communication:

Where a
small signal (~50 pA) was transmitted through the body and detected at a
receiving electrode. In this system, a single transmitting and a single
receiving electrode were placed near the skin without touching it, capacitively
coupled to the body. Another set of electrodes at the transmitter and receiver
were also oriented away from the body and were capacitively coupled to the
environmental ground, serving as the signal’s return path.

Advantages:

– This type of telemetry is called
capacitive sensor communication and has been used first in surface
communications with both transmitting and receiving electrodes placed near or
on the skin.

-This allows for easy precipitation and
posture of the skin electrodes to develop the quality of reception signals.

 Disadvantages:

-The major
limitation of this transmission method is its reliance on capacitive
connections to both the body and ground and thus has not been used for
communicating with implanted devices.

-Several
applications of capacitive intrabody communication have been developed for
transmitting data to consumer electronic devices.

-Because the signal has to travel through the
skin, which is less conductive than many of the tissues inside the body, more
signal attenuation occurs. 

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